Bibliography: Rescue by the United States During the Holocaust


Agar, H. The Saving Remnant: An Account of Jewish Survival. (New York: Viking, 1960).

American Jewish Committee. American Jewish Yearbook. Vols. XXXII-XLVIII. (New York: American Jewish Committee, 1931-1947).

American Jewish Joint Distribution Committee, Aiding Jews Overseas: Reports of the American Jewish Joint Distribution Committee, 1939-1942.

American Jewish Joint Distribution Committee, The Rescue of Stricken Jews in a World at War, December 1943.

Bauer, Yehuda. American Jewry and the Holocaust. (Detroit: Wayne State University Press, 1981).

Bauer, Yehuda. My Brother’s Keeper: A History of the American Joint Distribution Committee. (Philadelphia: Jewish Publication Society, 1974).

Baumel, Judith Tydor. Unfulfilled Promise: Rescue and Resettlement of Jewish Children in the United States, 1934-1945 (1990).

Bernard, William S., ed. American Immigration Policy. New York: Harper & Brothers, 1950.

Blum, John M., ed. The Morgenthau Diaries. 3 vols. (Boston: Houghton Mifflin, 1967).

Blum, J. M. Roosevelt and Morgenthau: A Revision and Condensation of “From the Morgenthau Diaries.” (Boston, 1970).

Breitman, Richard. Official Secrets: What the Nazis Planned, What the British and Americans Knew. (New York: Hill and Wang, 1998).

Breitman, Richard, & Alan Kraut, American Refugee Policy and European Jewry, 1933-1945 (1987).

Breitman, Richard, Barbara McDonald Stewart, and Severin Hochberg (Eds.). Advocate for the Doomed: The Diaries and Papers of James G. McDonald, 1932-1935. (Bloomington, IN: Indiana University Press, 2007).

Celler, Emanuel. You Never Leave Brooklyn. (New York: G. P. Putnam’s Sons, 1948). 

Childs, Rives. Foreign Service Farewell, pp. 116-117.

Clarke, Jeanne Nienaber. Roosevelt’s Warrior: Harold L. Ickes and the New Deal. (Baltimore, MD: The Johns Hopkins University Press, 1996).

Davie, Maurice R. Refugees in America. New York: Harper & Brothers, 1947.

Divine, Robert A. American Immigration Policy 1924-1952. New Haven: Yale University Press, 1957.

Feingold, Henry. The Politics of Rescue: The Roosevelt Administration and the Holocaust, 1938-1944. (New Brunswick, NJ:(New Brunswick: Rutgers University Press, 1970).

Feingold, Henry L. “Who Shall Bear the Guilt for the Holocaust: The Human Dilemma.” American Jewish History, 7, 1-22.

Friedman, Saul S. No Haven for the Oppressed. (Detroit: Wayne State University Press, 1973).

Fry, Varian. Assignment Rescue. (New York: Scholastic, 1997).

Fry, Varian. “France, Once ‘Haven of Exiles’ Becomes Gestapo Man-trap.” The New Leader (25 April 1942): 5.

Fry, Varian. “The Massacre of the Jews.” Jewish Spectator.

Fry, Varian. Surrender on Demand. (New York: Random House, 1945).

Fry, Varian. Surrender on Demand. (Colorado: Johnson Books, 1997).

Gilbert, Martin. Auschwitz and the Allies: A Devastating Account of How the Allies Responded to the News of Hitler’s Mass Murder. (New York: Henry Holt, 1981).

Ginzberg, Eli. Report to American Jews on Overseas Relief, Palestine and Refugees in the United States. (New York: Harper & Brothers, 1942).

Hirschmann, Ira A. Life Line to a Promised Land. (New York: Vanguard Press, 1946).

Hirschmann, Ira. Caution to the Winds. (New York: David McKay Co.).

Hockley, Ralph M. Freedom is not Free. (Houston, TX: Brockton Publishing Co., 2000).

Hutchinson, Edward Prince. Legislative History of American Immigration Policy 1798-1965. Philadelphia: University of Pennsylvania Press, 1981.

Ickes, Harold L. The Autobiography of a Curmudgeon. (New York: Reynal & Hitchcock, 1945.

Isenberg, Sheila. A Hero of Our Own: The Story of Varian Fry. (New York: Random House).

Kraut, Alan M., and Richard Breitman. American Refugee Policy and European Jews. (Bloomington: Indiana University Press, 1987).

Lipstat, Deborah. Beyond Belief: The American Press and the Coming of the Holocaust. (New York: The Free Press, 1986).

Maga, Timothy. America, France and the European Refugee Problem. New York: Garland, 1985.

Marino, Andy. A Quiet American: The Secret War of Varian Fry. (New York: St. Martin’s Press, 1999).

Marrus, Michael R. The Unwanted: European Refugees in the Twentieth Century. Oxford: Oxford University Press, 1985.

Morse, Arthur D. While Six Million Died: A Chronicle of American Apathy. (New York: Random House, 1967).

Penkower, Monty Noam. The Jews Were Expendable: Free World diplomacy and the Holocaust.  (Chicago: University of Illinois Press, 1983).

Rothkirchen, Livia (Ed.). “Rescue efforts with the assistance of international organization: Documents from the archives of Dr. A. Silberschein.” Yad Vashem Studies, 8 (1970), 69-80.

Shafir, Shlomo. “American Diplomats in Berlin (1933-1939) and their Attitude to the Nazi Persecution of the Jews.” Yad Vashem Studies, 9 (1973), pp. 71-104.

Shafir, Shlomo. “George S. Messersmith: An Anti-Nazi Diplomat’s View of the German Jewish Crisis.” Jewish Social Studies.

Stuart, Graham H. The Department of State: A History of its Organization, Procedure and Personal. New York: MacMillan and Company, 1949.

Thompson, Dorothy.  Refugees, Anarchy or Organization. (New York: Random House, 1938).

Thompson, Dorothy.  Let the Record Speak.  (Boston: Houghton Mifflin, 1939).

Thompson, Dorothy.  “Refugees, A World Problem,” Foreign Affairs, XVI (April 1938).

U.S. Department of State. Foreign Relations of the United States, Diplomatic Correspondence. Washington, D.C., 1963-69. (Covers the years 1933-1945.)

Watkins, T. H. “Harold LeClair Ickes.” In John A. Garraty & Mark C. Carnes (Eds.), American National Biography, Vol. II. (New York: Oxford University Press, 1999, 626-628).

Welles, Sumner. The Time for Decision. New York and London: Harper & Brothers, 1944.

White, Graham, & John Maze. Harold Ickes of the New Deal: His Private Life and Public Career. (Cambridge, MA: Harvard University Press, 1985).

Wyman, David S. Paper Walls: America and the Refugee Crisis, 1939-1941. (Amherst: University of Massachusetts Press, 1968).

Wyman, David S. The Abandonment of the Jews: America and the Holocaust, 1941-1945. (New York: Pantheon, 1984).

Wyman, David S. and Rafael Medoff. A Race Against Death: Peter Bergson, America, and the Holocaust. (New York: The New Press, 2002).

Zucker, Bat-Ami. In Search of Refuge: Jews and US Consuls in Nazi Germany, 1933-1941. (Valentine Mitchell, 2001).

Archive Collections Relating to America and the Holocaust

The Varian Fry Papers, Rare Book and Manuscript Library, Columbia University, especially box 7, folders “American Consulates in Europe” and “American Embassy, Vichy” and box 18, “Visa Policy, US” and Feuchtwanger files.

American Jewish Joint Distribution Committee Archives, NYC.  (See file number 363 in “Emigration-General 1930-44.”  Letter dated October 26, 1940, from Morris Troper to George Warren praising Bingham’s refugee work in Marseilles.  There may be other references in JDC archives.)

Department of Justice, Immigration and Naturalization Service, Washington, DC. The INS holds unpublished documents relating to alien immigration.

Breckinridge Long papers, Library of Congress, Washington, DC.

U.S. National Archives and Records Administration, Washington, DC, and College Park, MD: General Records of the Department of State (RG59), files 150.62 Public Charge (entry of aliens into the United States), 740.00011 European War, 837.55J Central Decimal File, 840.48 refugees and 811.111 refugees; State Department diplomatic post records (RG84), records of the Vichy embassy and the Marseille consulate, 1940-1941; Records of the Department of Labor (RG174).

Reinhold Neibuhr papers, Library of Congress, Washington, DC.  Neibuhr sat on the board of the Emergency Rescue Committee (ERC) in New York City.

Published Documents Relating to America and the Holocaust
The Department of State Bulletin. Washington: United States Government Printing Office, 1939-1942.

Documents on German Foreign Policy 1918-1945. Series D, The War Years. Washington: United States Government Printing Office, 1957-1960.

Historical Statistics of the United States 1789-1943. Washington: United States Department of Commerce, Bureau of the Census, 1975.

History of the Immigration and Naturalization Service. Prepared by the Congressional Research Service, Library of Congress.  Washington: United States Government Printing Office, 1980. (Photocopy at the Immigration and Naturalization Service library, Washington, DC.)

Immigration and Naturalization Service, Annual Reports:

Twenty-Eighth Annual Report of the Secretary of Labor, for the fiscal year ended June 30, 1940. Washington: United States Government Printing Office, 1940.

“Report of Special Assistant to the Attorney General Lemuel B. Schofeld in Charge of the Immigration and Naturalization Service,” for the fiscal year ended June 30, 1941. (Photocopy at the Immigration and Naturalization Service library, Washington, DC.)

“Annual Report of Lemuel B. Schofeld, Special Assistant to the Attorney General in Charge of the Immigration and Naturalization Service, Year Ended June 30, 1942.” (Photocopy at the Immigration and Naturalization Service library, Washington, DC.)

Laws Applicable to Immigration and Nationality. Compiled under the Direction of Carl B. Hyatt, Assistant Commissioner, Citizenship Services and Instructions Division, Immigration and Naturalization Service, United States Department of Justice, Washington: United States Government Printing Office, 1953.

Statutes at Large of the United States of America. Washington: United States Government Printing Office.

Oral Histories

The recollections of those personally involved: Albert O. Hirschmann and Charles Fawcett, both employees of Centre Américain de Secours, as well as at least eight oral histories deposited in the USHMM oral history collection.