Rescue by Religious Organizations

 

This is an alphabetical list of religious organizations that rescued Jews and other refugees during the Holocaust.  Within these organizations, individuals are listed alphabetically.  The leaders of the organizations and senior officials are listed at the top.

For some of the larger entries (e.g., Catholic, Protestant), we have broken the categories down into country.  These countries include Austria, Belgium, France, Germany, Hungary, Italy, and the United States, among others.  Within the denomination and country, religious organizations, churches, orders, etc., are listed alphabetically.

 

Abegg Rescue Network, Berlin, Germany (Gutman, 1990; Gutman, 2004, p. 67)

Elisabeth Abegg● (b. 1882), Quaker, hid, sheltered and protected numerous Jews in her Berlin apartment, awarded Righteous Among the Nations title May 23, 1967 (Yad Vashem Archives)

AC, see Christian Friendship, France

ACCR, see American Committee for Christian German Refugees

Reverend Bastian Jan Adler Rescue Network, Nieuw Beerta, Groningen, Netherlands (Gutman, 2004, p. 57)

Hid, sheltered and moved Jews to keep them safe from arrest and deportation during the German occupation of Holland.  Reverend Adler was denounced by an associate and was arrested and executed by German authorities.  Johanna, his wife, continued rescue activities after his death.  It is estimated that they saved between 200 and 300 Jews.

Reverend Bastian (Bas) Jan Adler●+* (alias Gerard van Zaanen) , awarded Righteous Among the Nations title November 22, 1967 (Yad Vashem Archives)

Johanna Adler-Appels●, awarded Righteous Among the Nations title November 22, 1967 (Yad Vashem Archives)

Adventist Church, Budapest, Hungary

Lazlo Michani●, Pastor

American Christian Committee for Refugees, Inc. (ACCR), New York, NY, USA, established 1934 (Refugee Scholar Fund)

(Freudenberg; Lazare, 1996, p. 27; Moore, 2010, p. 129; ACCR, Toward a New Life: 10 Years of Stewardship: The American Christian Committee for Refugees.  New York, 1945.  Romanofsky, Social Service Organizations, pp. 43-46, 238-241.  Wetzel, “American Rescue,” pp. 302-308.)

 Dr. Cabert

American Committee for Christian German Refugees (ACCR), USA, established February 1934 (American Committee for Christian German Refugees, 1945; Close, 1953; Davie, 1947; Duggan & Drury, 1948; Genizi, 1976, pp. 164-220; Genizi, 1983, pp. 96-136; Gutman, 1990, pp. 32-33, 1065-1066; Nawyn, 1981, pp. 159-181; Ross, 1981)

American Friends’ Service Committee (AFSC; Society of Friends; Quakers), headquarters Philadelphia, PA, USA, Southern France, Spain, Germany, Portugal, 1938-1945, established 1917; received Nobel Peace Prize in 1947.

(American Friends Service Committee Archive, Philadelphia, PA; JDC Archives, NYC; HIAS-HICEM Archives, YIVO, NYC; United States Holocaust Memorial Museum Archives, Washington, DC; Bauer, 1981, pp. 26-27, 40, 49, 114, 155-156, 207, 240, 245, 251, 287, 310, 404; Byrd, 1960; Fry, 1945; pp. 37; Genizi, 1983, pp. 172-214; Gold, 1980, pp. 155, 162, 334; Gutman, 2007, pp.419-420; Halle, 1979, pp. 129, 130, 132-138, 159, 167-168, 264; Isenberg; Marino, 1999, pp. 107, 150-151; Morse, 1967, pp. 167, 253, 258, 263, 330; Moore, 2010, pp. 34, 42, 123, 139-141; Pickett, 1953; Ryan, 1996, pp. 52, 88, 91, 93, 94, 103, 106, 122, 137, 138, 139, 148-157, 161, 175, 216; Vining, 1958; Hanstein, K.H., Refugee Services of the American Friends Service Committee: An Historial Summary. Philadelphia, 1967.  Romanofsky, Social Service Organizations, pp. 75-79.  Wetzel, “American Rescue,” pp. 237-287.  Wyman, Paper Walls.)

The American Friends Service Committee was instrumental in providing food, clothing and shelter for many thousands of refugees in the Vichy zone.  The AFSC had offices in Paris, Marseilles, Perpignan, Toulouse, Auch and Moutauban.

The AFSC concentrated its activities on helping to supply food to populations in the unoccupied zone of France.  Fifty percent of the AFSC aid was given to French citizens.  Much of the food relief came from the United States until March 1941.  AFSC also supplied aid to internees in French concentration camps.  The AFSC also aided Jewish refugees in leaving the Vichy zone. 

The American Friends’ Service Committee worked on a non-sectarian basis and established a very effective aid program in the French concentration camps.  They supplied food, medicine, clothing and other material to the needy refugees.  They set up libraries and schools for refugee children.  The AFSC worked particularly in the camps around Marseilles, Toulouse and Montauban.  They worked closely with OSE to save Jewish children.

Rufus Jones (USA), Leader

Clarence Pickett (USA), Chairman

Elizabeth Abegg● (1967), Berlin, Germany (1882-1957; Gutman, 1990)

David J. Blickenstaff (USA), Lisbon, Portugal; Spain (JDC Archives, NYC; HIAS-HICEM Archives, YIVO, NYC)

David J. Blickenstaff was the American Friends’ Service Committee representative in Spain and Portugal from April 1943 until the end of the war.  Blickenstaff supervised the distribution of relief funds and activities in France.  He helped look after inmates at the Miranda del Ebero internment camp.  He also represented the American Jewish Joint Distribution Committee there.

Phillip B. Conrad (USA), Lisbon, Portugal (JDC Archives, NYC)

Lindsey Nobel, USA, France (Ryan, 1996, p. 151)

Lindsey Nobel was the head of the American Friends’ Service Committee (Quakers) in Marseilles.  Nobel was a member of the Nimes Committee.

Howard E. Kershner (USA), Marseilles, France, 1940-1941 (Marino, 1999; Ryan, 1996, p. 151)

Howard Kershner was in overall supervision of the American Friends’ Service Committee (Quakers) relief efforts in Europe, including Southern France.

Roswell D. McClelland (USA), Southern France, later WRB representative, Geneva, Switzerland, 1944-1945 (Ryan, 1996, p. 151)

Ross McClelland worked with the American Friends’ Service Committee and coordinated relief efforts in the French concentration camps, including Les Milles.  McClelland was a member of the Nimes Committee.  He later was a field representative of the War Refugee Board.

Henry Harvey, Vichy Representative

Burns Chalmers, Marseilles, Southern France (Halle, 1979, pp. 130, 132-138,159, 167-168, 274; Marino, 1999; Moore, 2010, p. 140; Ryan, 1996)

Gilbert Lesage, Head, Service Social des Estrangers (SSE; Moore, 2010, p. 142)

Helga Holbek● (Gutman, 2003)

Alice Resch Synnestvedt● (“Miss Resch”; Gutman, 2003)

Gerhard Schwersensky● (b. 1909; Gutman, 2003)

Ilse Schwersensky● (b. 1904; Gutman, 2003)

Mr. Heinz Hagen, Berlin (Gutman, 2003)

Celine Roth de Neufville, Southern France (Marino, 1999, p. 271)

The Board of National Missions of the Presbyterian Church in the U.S.A.

Bulgarian Orthodox Church (Holy Synod),  see also King Boris (Bar-Zohar, 1998, pp. 165-177; Boyadjieff, 1989; Chary, 1972, pp. xiv, 28, 37, 57, 74-75, 90, 92, 130, 136, 138-139, 146-152, 188,-189, 192, 193, 197; Gutman, 1990; Gutman, 2007; Todorov, 1999; Todorov, 2001, pp. 25, 28-29, 54-57, 120, 150)

Metropolitans were highly critical of Bulgarian government anti-Semitic policies.

Metropolitan Cyril (Kiril) of Plovdiv● (1901-1971; Konstantin Markov) , awarded Righteous Among the Nations title (Yad Vashem Archives; Chary, 1972, pp. 90, 138-139, 188; Gutman, 2007; Todorov, 1999, pp. 10, 25, 40, 98)

Metropolitan Evlogi of Sliven (Chary, 1972, pp. 138-139; Todorov, 1999)

Metropolitan Filaret of Lovech (Chary, 1972, pp. 138-139; Todorov, 1999)

Metropolitan Kliment of Stara Zagora (Chary, 1972, pp. 138-139; Todorov, 1999)

Metropolitan (Bishop) Neofit of Vidin, Grand Vicar, President of the Holy Synod (Chary, 1972, pp. 138-139; Todorov, 1999, pp. 54-57, 90-91, 97n)

Metropolitan Paisi of Vratsa (Chary, 1972, pp. 138-139; Todorov, 1999, pp. 90-91)

Metropolitan Sofroni of Tarnovo (Chary, 1972, pp. 138-139; Todorov, 1999)

Metropolitan Sofroni of Vratsa (Chary, 1972, pp. 138-139; Todorov, 1999, pp. 21, 90)

Metropolitan Stefan of Sofia● (1878-1957; Stoyan Popguedrgviev), Metropolitan 1921-1945, awarded Righteous Among the Nations title (Yad Vashem Archives; Chary, 1972, pp. 57, 74, 75, 92, 130, 146-152, 188-189, 192, 193, 197; Gutman, 2007; Todorov, 1999, pp. 9, 12, 15, 20-21, 25, 29, 40, 90-91, 99-101, 115, 125-132)

Metropolitan Yosif (Joseph) of Varna and Preslau (Chary, 1972, pp. 138-139; Todorov, 1999)

Metropolitan of Dorostol and Cherven (Chary, 1972, pp. 138-139; Todorov, 1999)

Catholic Church (By Country)

Austria

Archiepiscopal Agency for Assisting Non-Aryan Catholics (Erzebischöfliche Hilfstelle für Nichtarische Katoliken), Vienna, Austria.  Aided Austrian Jews who had converted to Catholocism.  Eight members of the Archepiscopal staff were murdered in concentration camps. (Gutman, 2007, p. xxxi)

Theodore Cardinal Innitzer, Archbishop of Vienna

Georg Bichlmair, Jesuit

Countess Emanuela Kielmansegg

Father Ludwig Born

Father George Bichlmair Rescue Network, Austria (Gutman, 2007, p. xxxi)

Helped Austrian Jews who had converted to Christianity.  Nazis opposed actions of this group.  Father Bichlmair+ was arrested and sent to Upper Silesia.

Father George Bichlmair+, Jesuit priest, Catholic (Gutman, 2007, p. xxxi)

Theodore Cardinal Innitzer, Archbishop of Vienna

Countess Emanuela Kielmawsegg

Caritas (Catholic Charities), Germany, Austria, Czechoslovakia, France

(Swisse) at Gurs, France

Father Gross, Germany

Dr. Gertrud Lueknor, Czechoslovakia

Belgium

Anderlect Convent, Brussels (Gutman, 2005)

Sister Claire d’Assisse (Gutman, 2005)

Abbé Joseph André Rescue Network, see L’Aide Chrétienne aux Israélites (ACI)

Banneux Monastery, part of Kerkhofs Rescue Network, hid large number of refugee Jews in monastery (Gutman, 2005, p. 151)

Benedictine Monastery, Charneux, Belgium, hid Jews as part of Kerkhofs Rescue Network (Gutman, 2005, p. 151)

Benedictine Monastery, Liège, Belgium, hid Jews as part of Kerkhofs Rescue Network (Gutman, 2005, p. 151)

Benedictine Monastery, Val Dieu, Belgium, hid Jews as part of Kerkhofs Rescue Network (Gutman, 2005, p. 151)

Bon Pasteu de Bury-les-Roucourt Convent (near Bonsecout), Hainaut Region, Belgium, saved eight members of the Shapira family (Gutman, 2005, p. 196)

Mother Superior, Sister Marie de St. Augustin Nicolas●, awarded Righteous Among the Nations title February 24, 1993 (Yad Vashem Archives; Gutman, 2005, p. 196)

Sister Aalburge (Gutman, 2005, p. 196)

Other sisters (Gutman, 2005, p. 196)

Father (Abbé) Emile Boufflette Rescue Network, Liege/Luik, Belgium (Gutman, 2005, pp. 52-53; Moore, 2010)

Father (Abbé) Emile Boufflette●+*, Vicar of Liege/Luik, Belgium, leader, organizer, member Mouvement Nationale Belge, arrested, deported to the Dora German concentration camp, murdered March 1945, awarded Righteous Among the Nations title March 28, 1978 (Yad Vashem Archives; Gutman, 2005, pp. 52-53)

Louis Boufflette●, father of Emile Boufflette, awarded Righteous Among the Nations title March 28, 1978 (Yad Vashem Archives; Gutman, 2005, pp. 52-53)

Maria Boufflette●, mother of Emile Boufflette, awarded Righteous Among the Nations title March 28, 1978 (Yad Vashem Archives; Gutman, 2005, pp. 52-53)

Fernand-Joseph Boufflette●, uncle of Emile Boufflette, awarded Righteous Among the Nations title March 20, 1986 (Yad Vashem Archives; Gutman, 2005, pp. 52-53)

Thérèse A. Boufflette●, wife of Fernand-Joseph Boufflette, awarded Righteous Among the Nations title March 20, 1986 (Yad Vashem Archives; Gutman, 2005, pp. 52-53)

Joseph Boufflette●, son of Fernand-Joseph Boufflette, awarded Righteous Among the Nations title March 20, 1986 (Yad Vashem Archives; Gutman, 2005, pp. 52-53)

Paul Boufflette●, son of Fernand-Joseph Boufflette, awarded Righteous Among the Nations title March 20, 1986 (Yad Vashem Archives; Gutman, 2005, pp. 52-53)

Palmyre Boufflette●, child of Fernand-Joseph Boufflette, awarded Righteous Among the Nations title March 20, 1986 (Yad Vashem Archives; Gutman, 2005, pp. 52-53)

Father (Abbé) Bruylants Rescue Network, Brussels, Belgium, helped save approximately eighty Jews.  Worked with Jeunesses Ouvrière Chrétiennes (JOC).  (Gutman, 2007, pp. 56-57; Moore, 2010, pp. 286-287)

Father (Abbot) Jan Bruylants●, awarded Righteous Among the Nations title April 16, 1978 (Yad Vashem Archives; Gutman, 2005)

Marie Knops●, cousin of Abbe Bruylants, awarded Righteous Among the Nations title April 16, 1978 (Yad Vashem Archives; Gutman, 2005)

François Knops●, Maline/Mechelen, Belgium, awarded Righteous Among the Nations title April 16, 1978 (Yad Vashem Archives; Gutman, 2005)

Buissonets Convent, Banneux, Belgium (Gutman, 2005)

Carmelite Convent, Ruisselede (near Ghent), Belgium, hid Jewish gilrs, worked with Father Henry Reynders Rescue Network (Gutman, 2005, p. 67)

Mother Superior, Sister Marie Chrysostome●, awarded Righteous Among the Nations title November 5, 1994 (Yad Vashem Archives; Gutman, 2005, p. 67)

Sister Marie-Consulata (Gutman, 2005, p. 67)

Sister Marie-Amata (Gutman, 2005, p. 67)

Sister Jeanne Marie (Gutman, 2005, p. 67)

Catholic Bureau for Israel, Antwerp, established 1936 (Gutman, 2005)

Camille van Deyck (Gutman, 2005)

Catholic Workers Youth (Katholiek Arbeidersjeugd; KAJ; Jeunesse Ouvrier Catholique; JOC), Belgium, youth movement of Christian Worker’s Movement

JOC maintained homes in Tourneppe, Braine-L’Alleud, Lauwe, Dworp, Leffe-lez-Dinant, Schaltin, Banneux and Leffe, Belgium, that hid and sheltered 59 Jewish boys.  Headquarters was in the Boulevard Poincaré.

(Yad Vashem Archives; CEGES R 497.234.449, R 497.234.655, R 497.238.395; Bruck, 1985; Gutman, 2005, pp. xxx, 54, 60-61, 113; Moore, 2010, pp. 286-287)

Queen Elizabeth●, Queen Mother of Belgium (mother of King Léopold III), awarded Righteous Among the Nations title May 18, 1965 (Yad Vashem Archives; Gutman, 2005, p. 113)

Cardinal Van Roey●, awarded Righteous Among the Nations title (Yad Vashem Archives; Gutman, 2005)

Cardinal Jozef Cardijn, leader (Gutman, 2005)

Herman Bouton●, awarded Righteous Among the Nations title (Yad Vashem Archives; Gutman, 2005, pp. 54, 60-61, 163)

Father (Abbé) Bruylants●, Brussels, Belgium, awarded Righteous Among the Nations title May 28, 1978 (Yad Vashem Archives; Gutman, 2005, pp. 52-53)

Father Pierre Capart●, chaplain JDC, awarded Righteous Among the Nations title July 14, 1971 (Yad Vashem Archives; Gutman, 2005, pp. 60-61, 163)

Jean Capart, father of Father Pierre Capart (Gutman, 2005, p. 60)

Father (Abbé) Folliet●, awarded Righteous Among the Nations title (Yad Vashem Archives; Gutman, 2005)

Francis Lassoie● (near Brussels), awarded Righteous Among the Nations title May 3, 1963 (Yad Vashem Archives; Gutman, 2005, pp. 60-61, 163)

Paul Vanderheynst●+, secretary of Homes for Adolescents, Tourneppe, Schaltun, Banneux & Leffe, awarded Righteous Among the Nations title May 3, 1973 (Yad Vashem Archives; Gutman, 2005, pp. 60-61, 163, 262)

Cercle Ozanam, Home for Boys, Wegnez-lez-Pépinster, Belgium (Gutman, 2005, pp. 234-235)

Father Oscar Smeets●, awarded Righteous Among the Nations title (Yad Vashem Archives; Gutman, 2005, pp. 52, 234-235)

Roger Pire●, teacher, awarded Righteous Among the Nations title June 13, 1991 (Yad Vashem Archives; Gutman, 2005, pp. 234-235)

“Clarence Network,” Belgium, see Van den Berg Network (Gutman, 2005, pp. 252-253)

Albert van den Berg+ (Gutman, 2005, pp. 252-253; Moore, 2010, pp. 198-199)

College St. Hadelin, Catholic School, Visé-Liège, Belgium, worked to rescue Jews within Monsignor Kerkhof Resue Network (Gutman, 2005, pp. 145, 159)

Abbé Jacques Jacobs●, awarded Righteous Among the Nations title July 21, 1978 (Yad Vashem Archives; Gutman, 2005, pp. 145, 159)

Abbé Ivan Lambrette●, head of College, awarded Righteous Among the Nations title July 21, 1978 (Yad Vashem Archives; Gutman, 2005, pp. 159, 145)

Benedykt Grynpas Rescue Network, Brussels, Belgium (Gutman, 2005, pp. 82, 132, 147, 259)

Professor Benedykt Grynpas● (Baptised Jew), founder, leader, Benedykt Grynpas Rescue Network, awarded Righteous Among the Nations title June 24, 1975 (Yad Vashem Archives; Gutman, 2005, pp. 82, 132, 147, 259)

Father Jean-Baptist Janssens●, Benedykt Grynpas Rescue Network, Jesuit Society (SJ), awarded Righteous Among the Nations title June 24, 1975 (Yad Vashem Archives; Gutman, 2005, pp. 82, 132, 147)

Father Jean-Baptist de Coster●, Benedykt Grynpas Rescue Network, awarded Righteous Among the Nations title June 24, 1975 (Yad Vashem Archives; Gutman, 2005, pp. 82, 132, 147, 259)

Father Jean Baptist de Ligne-Prince●, Benedykt Grynpas Rescue Network, Brussels, Belgium, awarded Righteous Among the Nations title (Yad Vashem Archives; Gutman, 2005, pp. 82, 132, 147, 259)

Father Henri van Oostayen●+* (Jesuit Society; JS), Benedykt Grynpas Rescue Network, Red Cross, arrested by Germans, deported to Bergen-Belsen concentration camp, Germany, died April 1945, awarded Righteous Among the Nations title (Yad Vashem Archives; Gutman, 2005, pp. 82, 132, 147, 259)

Holy Heart of Maria, Ter Hulpe, Belgium, helped Jews as part of Kerkhofs Rescue Network (Gutman, 2005, p. 151)

Huy/Hoie Convent, Belgium, helped Jews as part of Kerkhofs Rescue Network (Gutman, 2005, p. 151)

Mother Superior, helped Jews as part of Kerkhofs Rescue Network (Gutman, 2005, p. 151)

Imelda Institute Convent, Brussels, Belgium, hid and sheltered between 40-60 Jews, worked with CDJ (Gutman, 2005, pp. 45-46)

Mother Superior Sister Berthile●, awarded Righteous Among the Nations title April 12, 1992 (Yad Vashem Archives; Gutman, 2005, pp. 45-46)

Sister Mechtilde●, awarded Righteous Among the Nations title April 12, 1992 (Yad Vashem Archives; Gutman, 2005, pp. 45-46)

Institut Saint Joseph des Soeurs de la Misericorde, Rosseignies/Rozenaken, Hainaut/Henegouwen; hid Jews in convent/school, worked with Father Laurent Couppe (Gutman, 2005, p. 115)

Sister Euthalie●, awarded Righteous Among the Nations title July 15, 1998 (Yad Vashem Archives; Gutman, 2005, p. 115)

Sister Germain/Maria de Pauw●, awarded Righteous Among the Nations title July 15, 1998 (Yad Vashem Archives; Gutman, 2005, p. 115)

Jeunesse Ouvrière Chrétienne (JOC), Christian Youth Group, Tourneppe, Schaltin, Leffe, Banneux, Belgium; hid 58 young Jewish boys in four centers during German occupation of Belgium (Gutman, 2005, pp. 60-61, 113)

Queen Mother Elizabeth●, awarded Righteous Among the Nations title May 18, 1965 (Yad Vashem Archives; Gutman, 2005, pp. 60-61, 113)

Father Pierre Capart●, Chaplain, Jeunesse Ouvrière Chrétienne (JOC), Catholic Youth Movement, awarded Righteous Among the Nations title June 14, 1971 (Yad Vashem Archives; Gutman, 2005, pp. 60-61)

Jean Capart, father of Father Pierre Capart (Gutman, 2005, pp. 60-61)

Ida Sterno+ (alias “Miss Jeanne”; Jewish), member CDJ, arrested by Gestapo (Gutman, 2005, pp. 60-61, 128)

Francis Lassoie●, awarded Righteous Among the Nations title May 3, 1973 (Yad Vashem Archives; Gutman, 2005, pp. 60, 163)

Paul Vanderheynst●+, secretary, awarded Righteous Among the Nations title May 3, 1973 (Yad Vashem Archives; Gutman, 2005, pp. 60, 163, 262)

Herman Bouton●, awarded Righteous Among the Nations title May 3, 1973 (Yad Vashem Archives; Gutman, 2005, pp. 54, 60, 163)

Andrée Geulen● (alias “Claude Fournier”; b. 1921), CDJ, helped hide 300 Jewish children, awarded Righteous Among the Nations title August 2, 1989 (Yad Vashem Archives; Gutman, 2005, pp. 54, 128-129)

Odile Ovart-Henri●+*, head of Gatti de Gammond School, Woluwé-St. Pierre, Brussels, Belgium, hid Jewish children in her school, worked with CDJ, caught, arrested and deported to Ravensbrück and Bergen Belsen concentration camps, died of Typhus there, awarded Righteous Among the Nations title October 4, 1994 (Yad Vashem Archives; Gutman, 2005, pp. 128, 202)

Monsignor (Bishop) Louis-Joseph Kerkhofs Rescue Network, Liège, Namur (Namen) Province, Belgium, see also André Rescue Network, Ven den Berg Rescue Network, Meunier Rescue Network, Boufflette Rescue Network, L’Aide Chrétienne aux Israelites (ACI)

Rescue operation headed by Monsignor/Bishop Louis Joseph Kerkhofs (Catholic) and Father (Abbé) Joseph André in the Namur (Namen) Province of Belgium.  Saved Jewish children and adults.  Worked with and organized rescue operations with the following Catholic institutions: Banneux Monastery, Benedictine Monastries in Liège, Charneux, Val Dieu, the Holy Heart of Maria in Ter Hulp, Convent in Huy/Hoie, Les Soeurs du Bon Secours, Liège.  (Yad Vashem Archives; Gutman, 2005, pp. 36-37, 151, 156, 252-253)

Monsignor (Bishop) Louis-Joseph Kerkhofs●, leader, Bishop of Liège, awarded Righteous Among the Nations title July 6, 1981 (Yad Vashem Archives; Gutman, 2005, pp. 151, 156, 252-253)

Father (Abbé) Joseph André● (1908-1973), leader, awarded Righteous Among the Nations title November 26, 1968 (Yad Vashem Archives; Gutman, 2005, pp. 36-37, 151)

Albert van den Berg●+, lawyer, head of Van den Berg Rescue Network, awarded Righteous Among the Nations title July 19, 1995 (Yad Vashem Archives; Gutman, 2005, pp. 252-253)

Paul Bonhomme● (layperson), awarded Righteous Among the Nations title (Yad Vashem Archives; Gutman, 2008, p. 151)

Father Emile Boufflette●, awarded Righteous Among the Nations title (Yad Vashem Archives; Gutman, 2005, p. 151)

Father Hubert Celis●+, Halmaal, Limburg Province, Belgium, awarded Righteous Among the Nations title March 25, 1980 (Yad Vashem Archives; Gutman, 2005, pp. 63-64, 151)

Joseph Celis●, father of Hubert Celis, awarded Righteous Among the Nations title March 25, 1980 (Yad Vashem Archives; Gutman, 2005, pp. 63-65, 151)

Bona Celis●, daughter of Joseph Celis, awarded Righteous Among the Nations title March 25, 1980 (Yad Vashem Archives; Gutman, 2005, p. 64)

Lucy Celis●, daughter of Joseph Celis, awarded Righteous Among the Nations title March 25, 1980 (Yad Vashem Archives; Gutman, 2005, p. 64)

Louis Celis●, awarded Righteous Among the Nations title March 25, 1980 (Yad Vashem Archives; Gutman, 2005, pp. 64-65)

Father Ermotte, Liège, Belgium, worked with Father André Meunier (Gutman, 2005, p. 186)

Georges Fonsney● (layperson), Liège/Liuk, Beligum, brother-in-law of Albert van den Berg, awarded Righteous Among the Nations title March 27, 1996 (Yad Vashem Archives; Gutman, 2005, 119)

Germaine Fonsney-van den Berg●, sister of Albert van den Berg, awarded Righteous Among the Nations title March 27, 1996 (Yad Vashem Archives; Gutman, 2005, p. 119)

Father Louis Jamin●, awarded Righteous Among the Nations title (Yad Vashem Archives; Gutman, 2005, p. 151)

Mrs. Kleinberger (Jewish), Antwerp, helped Father Meunier save Jews (Gutman, 2005, p. 186)

Dr. Marcel Lambrichts● (layperson), awarded Righteous Among the Nations title (Yad Vashem Archives; Gutman, 2005, p. 151)

Paula Marchal●, clerk, City of Bressous, Liège, Belgium, awarded Righteous Among the Nations title March 27, 1996 (Yad Vashem Archives; Gutman, 2005, p. 119)

Father (Vicar) André Meunier●, professor, Catholic Grand Seminary, Liège, network leader, awarded Righteous Among the Nations title October 10, 1966 (Yad Vashem Archives; Gutman, 2005, p. 186)

Father Joseph Peeters●+*, Comblain-au-Port, Liège/Luik, Belgium, killed by Germans on August 31, 1943, awarded Righteous Among the Nations title February 10, 1983 (Yad Vashem Archives; Gutman, 2005, pp. 151, 169, 205)

Father Dom Bruno (Henri) Reynder● (b. 1903), Mont César, Louvain, major rescue organizer, led own rescue network, awarded Righteous Among the Nations title October 10, 1964 (Yad Vashem Archives; Gutman, 2005, pp. 218-219)

Marie-Louise Tabruyn● (layperson), Father Louis Celis’ housekeeper, awarded Righteous Among the Nations title March 25, 1980 (Yad Vashem Archives; Gutman, 2005, p. 64)

L’Aide Chrétienne aux Israélites (ACI), Liège (Luik), Episcopate of, Namur (Namen) Province, Belgium, Abbé Joseph André Rescue Network, see also Kerkhofs Rescue Network

Catholic underground rescue group founded by Father (Abbé) Joseph André in Namur (Namen), Belgium.  Hid and sheltered Jews in convents, schools and hospitals in Bellegem, Leffe, St. Marie in Bouverie, Benedictine Convent in Liège, Don Bosco Convent in Tournai, and his brother Jean Reynder’s home.  Worked with Van den Berg-Kerkhof Rescue Network, CDJ, the Belgian Red Cross, the Winter Fund (HELP) and Father Bruno Reynders Rescue Network.  (Gutman, 2005, pp. xxxiv, xxviii, 36-37, 39, 44-45, 151; Moore, 2010, pp. 195, 283; Papeleux, 1980, 1981; Thyange, 1999)

Father (Abbé) Joseph André● (1908-1973), leader, St. Jean Baptiste Parish, awarded Righteous Among the Nations title November 26, 1968 (Yad Vashem Archives; Gutman, 2005, pp. 36-37, 151)

Bishop Monsignor Louis-Joseph Kerkhofs●, Diocese of Liège, head of Kerkhofs Rescue Network, awarded Righteous Among the Nations title July 6, 1981 (Yad Vashem Archives; Luik; Gutman, 2005, pp. 36-37, 151, 156, 252-253)

Father Bruno Reynders● (1903-1981), head of Reynders Network, awarded Righteous Among the Nations title October 10, 1964 (Yad Vashem Archives; Gutman, 2005, pp. 218-219; Papeleux, 1980, 1981)

Father Hubert Celis●, Halmaal, Limberg Province, Belgium, awarded Righteous Among the Nations title March 25, 1980 (Yad Vashem Archives; Gutman, 2005, pp. 63-64, 151)

Dr. Marcel●, awarded Righteous Among the Nations title (Yad Vashem Archives; Gutman, 2005)

Father (Abbé) Emille Boufflette●+*, murdered by Germans, awarded Righteous Among the Nations title May 28, 1978(Yad Vashem Archives;  (Gutman, 2005, pp. 52-53)

Father Joseph Peeters●+*, also worked in Bishop Kirkofs Rescue Network, murdered by Germans, awarded Righteous Among the Nations titleFebruary 10, 1983 (Yad Vashem Archives; Gutman, 2005, pp. 169, 205)

Fernand Arnould, MD●, awarded Righteous Among the Nations title July 13, 1972 (Yad Vashem Archives; Gutman, 2005, pp. 39-40)

Nelly Arnould-Bayard●, wife of Dr. Fernand Arnold, awarded Righteous Among the Nations title July 13, 1972 (Yad Vashem Archives; Gutman, 2005, pp. 39-40)

Charles Berhin●, Namur/Namen Region, CDJ, assistant to Father André, awarded Righteous Among the Nations title November 29, 1977 (Yad Vashem Archives; Gutman, 2005, pp. 44-45, 114, 170)

Paul Bonhomme●, and wife Madelein Bonhomme●, Liège/Liuk, Belgium, hid Jews in their home, awarded Righteous Among the Nations title July 6, 1981 (Yad Vashem Archives; Gutman, 2005, p. 50)

Marchel Eucher●, Namur/Namen Region, hid Jews in their home, awarded Righteous Among the Nations title November 29, 1977 (Yad Vashem Archives; Gutman, 2005, pp. 114-115, 170)

Anna (Wauthy) Eucher●, Namur/Namen Region, hid Jews in their home, awarded Righteous Among the Nations title November 29, 1977 (Yad Vashem Archives; Gutman, 2005, pp. 114-115, 170)

Flore Leroy●, Namur/Namen Region, hid Jews in her home, awarded Righteous Among the Nations title (Yad Vashem Archives; Gutman, 2005, p. 170)

Dr. Jean Reynders●, Ixelles, Brussels, brother of Father Bruno Reynders, hid Jews in his home, awarded Righteous Among the Nations title September 8, 1993 (Yad Vashem Archives; Gutman, 2005, p. 219)

Mr. Vishnie (Jewish; Gutman, 2005)

Father Marcel Camile Paternotte●+ (Army chaplain), member MNB underground resistance group, saved 25 Jews in Charleroi region, awarded Righteous Among the Nations title April 23, 1975 (Yad Vashem Archives; Gutman, 2005, pp. 203-204)

La Colonie Episcopale des Enfants (Catholic), Stoumont (Ardennes Region), Belgium; hid, sheltered and protected young Jewish boys during German occupation (Gutman, 2005, p. 239)

Abbé Marcel Stenne●, head, awarded Righteous Among the Nations title March 28, 1988 (Yad Vashem Archives; Gutman, 2005, p. 239)

Pierre Schmitz●+, brother-in-law of Father Marcel Stenne; provided food for Jewish boys, arrested and tortured by Nazis, awarded Righteous Among the Nations title March 28, 1988 (Yad Vashem Archives; Gutman, 2005, pp. 229, 239)

Marie Schmitz-Janssen●, wife of Pierre Schmitz, awarded Righteous Among the Nations title March 28, 1988 (Yad Vashem Archives; Gutman, 2005, pp. 229, 239)

Father Alberic Steiger●, Val Dieu Monastery, Liège/Luik, Belgium, awarded Righteous Among the Nations title March 28, 1988 (Yad Vashem Archives)

La Mission Belge Evangelique (Belgian Evangelical Mission), Docherie, Charleroi Region, Belgium, worked with Assemblee des Frères (Assembly of Brothers; Gutman, 2005, pp. 38-39)

Pastor Alexandre Doulière●, awarded Righteous Among the Nations title May 24, 1999 (Yad Vashem Archives; Gutman, 2005, pp. 38-39)

Elmire Doulière-Bastin●, wife of Pastor Alexandre Doulière, awarded Righteous Among the Nations title May 24, 1999 (Yad Vashem Archives; Gutman, 2005, pp. 38-39)

Richard Doulière, son of Pastor Alexandre Doulière (Gutman, 2005, pp. 38-39)

Pastor Odilon Vansteenberghe

Georges Arcq●, Noucelles, Belgium, awarded Righteous Among the Nations title May 24, 1999 (Yad Vashem Archives; Gutman, 2005, pp. 38-39)

Lydie Arcq-Van der Vale●, wife of Georges Arcq, Noucelles, Belgium, awarded Righteous Among the Nations title May 24, 1999 (Yad Vashem Archives; Gutman, 2005, pp. 38-39)

Félicie Huart-van Odhen●, Lillois, Belgium, awarded Righteous Among the Nations title May 24, 1999 (Yad Vashem Archives; Gutman, 2005, pp. 38-39)

Nathan Huart●, Lillois, Belgium, awarded Righteous Among the Nations title May 24, 1999 (Yad Vashem Archives; Gutman, 2005, pp. 38-39)

La Providence Orphanage, Halmaal, Belgium, hid and sheltered Jews, worked with Kerkhofs and Van den Berg Rescue Networks (Gutman, 2005, pp. 63-64)

Father Louis Célis●+, awarded Righteous Among the Nations title March 25, 1980 (Yad Vashem Archives; Gutman, 2005, pp. 63-64)

Father Hubert Célis●, Van den Berg Rescue Network, awarded Righteous Among the Nations title March 25, 1980 (Yad Vashem Archives; Gutman, 2005, pp. 63-64)

Sister Claire (Gutman, 2005)

La Providence Orphanage, Hodimont, Verviers, part of Saint Vincent de Paul Sisters of Charity, Antwerp, Belgium, hid and sheltered young Jews during German occupation (Gutman, 2005, pp. 170-171)

Sister Marie-Mathilde Leruth●, head of La Providence Orphanage, Hodimont, Viviers, awarded Righteous Among the Nations title September 9, 1965 (Yad Vashem Archives; Gutman, 2005, pp. 170-171)

Other sisters

Le Petit Seminaire, Catholic College, Saint-Roch (near Liège), Belgium

Les Marraines Rescue Group (Gutman, 2005, pp. 138-139, 160)

Jean Herinckx●, Mayor of Uccle/Ukkel, Belgium, awarded Righteous Among the Nations title June 12, 1980 (Yad Vashem Archives; Gutman, 2005, pp. 138-139, 160)

Lucie Tyteca●, awarded Righteous Among the Nations title (Yad Vashem Archives; Gutman, 2005, pp. 138-139, 160)

Lucie Moniez●, awarded Righteous Among the Nations title (Yad Vashem Archives; Gutman, 2005, pp. 138-139, 160)

Jean Lameer●, professor of philosophy, Université Libre de Brussels, member of CDJ, awarded Righteous Among the Nations title (Yad Vashem Archives; Gutman, 2005, pp. 138-139, 160)

Jeanne Daman●, awarded Righteous Among the Nations title (Yad Vashem Archives; Gutman, 2005, pp. 139, 160)

Dr. Christian Hendrickx-Duchaine●, awarded Righteous Among the Nations title (Yad Vashem Archives; Gutman, 2005, pp. 139, 160)

Les Souers du Bon Secours Convent, Belgium

Mater Dei Institute Convent, Louvain/Leuven, Belgium (Gutman, 2005)

Mother Superior, Sister Liguor (Martha Pauline; Gutman, 2005)

Other sisters (Gutman, 2005)

Father Meunier Rescue Network, Liège, Belgium, see also Bishop (Msg) Louis-Joseph Kerkhofs Rescue Network, Van Den Berg Rescue Network, Bouflette Rescue Network, Soeurs de la Misericord (Sisters of Compassion) Convent (YV M31/594 [André Meunier]; Gutman, 2005, p. 186)

Father (Abbé, Vicar) André Meunier●, professor, Catholic Grand Seminary, Liège, awarded Righteous Among the Nations title October 10, 1966 (Yad Vashem Archives, YV M31/594, André Meunier; Gutman, 2005, p. 186)

Bishop (Msg) Louis-Joseph Kerkhofs●, awarded Righteous Among the Nations title July 6, 1981 (Yad Vashem Archives; Gutman, 2005, pp. 84, 151, 186, 252-253)

Mrs. Kleinberger (Jewish), coordinated rescue efforts (Gutman, 2005, p. 186)

Monsignor Louis de Gryter●, Parish of Saint Christophe, Liège/Luik, Belgium, awarded Righteous Among the Nations title February 9, 2005 (Yad Vashem Archives; Gutman, 2005, pp. 84, 151, 186)

Father (Abbé) Emile Boufflette●+*, Movement Nationale Belge, murdered by Germans, awarded Righteous Among the Nations title May 28, 1978 (Yad Vashem Archives; Gutman, 2005, pp. 52-53, 186)

Father (Abbé) Joseph André● of Namur, Regional Seminary, Bastogne, André Aid/Rescue Network, head L’Aide Chrétienne aux Israelites (ACI), awarded Righteous Among the Nations title November 26, 1968 (Yad Vashem Archives; Gutman, 2005, pp. 36-37, 186)

Father Joseph Dethier, chaplain, Verleumont, Belgium, hid and protected Jews, worked with Soeurs de la Misericorde (Sisters of Compassion) Convent and Home for Children in Charneux, Herve, near Liège/Luik, Belgium (Matteazzi, 1999, p. 201)

Father Ermotte, Liège/Luik, Belgium, hid Jews, awarded Righteous Among the Nations title (Yad Vashem Archives; Gutman, 2005, p. 186)

Sisters of the Misericordia Convent and Catholic Girls Home, St. Georges sur Meuse, Belgium, hid and provided for 15 Jewish girls and two adults (Gutman, 2005, p. 202)

Sister Véronique Overkamp●, awarded Righteous Among the Nations title May 21, 1997 (Yad Vashem Archives; Gutman, 2005, p. 202)

Mont César Monastery, Louvain, part of Father Bruno Reynders Rescue Network; hid, sheltered and cared for Jews (Gutman, 2005, pp. 218-219)

Father Henri Reynders● (Bruno of Louvain; 1903-1981), Benedictine Order, major rescue activist, worked with Van-den-Berg Rescue Network, awarded Righteous Among the Nations title October 10, 1964 (Yad Vashem Archives; Gutman, 2005, pp. 152-153, 218-219)

Nagirnik, Louvain (Gutman, 2005)

National Children’s Committee (Oeuvre Nationale de l’Enfance; ONE; National Werk voor Kinderwelzijn; NWK), Belgium; worked with Committee for the Protection of Jews in Belgium (Comité de Défense Des Juifs en Belgique; Jewish Defense Committee; CDJ; Garfinkeles, 1965; Gutman, 1990, pp. 1059-1060; Gutman, 2005, xxxi, 76-77, 194-195; Steinberg, 1973; Yad Vashem Archives)

Rescued 4,000 Jewish children in Belgium during German occupation of Belgium, 1940-1944.

Yvone Nèvejean● (d.1987), Head, National Children’s Committee, Oeuvre Nationale de l’Enfance (ONE) Rescue Network, executive member Jewish Defense Committee (CDJ), member Services et Renseignements, awarded Righteous Among the Nations title February 16, 1965 (Yad Vashem Archives; Gutman, 2005, pp. 194-195)

Archbishop Louis-Joseph Kerkhofs●, head of Kerkhofs Rescue Network, Liège, awarded Righteous Among the Nations title July 6, 1981 (Yad Vashem Archives; Gutman, 2005, p. 151, 252-253)

Father Joseph André●, Namur, France, head of L’Aide Chrétienne aux Israelites (ACI) rescue network, awarded Righteous Among the Nations title November 26, 1968 (Yad Vashem Archives; Gutman, 2005, pp. 36-37)

Father Henri Reynders● (Bruno of Louvain; 1903-1981), Benedictine Order, major rescue activist, worked with Van-den-Berg Rescue Network, awarded Righteous Among the Nations title October 10, 1964 (Yad Vashem Archives; Gutman, 2005, pp. 36-37, 152-153, 218-219)

Léon Platteau●, Belgian Ministry of Justice, awarded Righteous Among the Nations title December 11, 1975 (Yad Vashem Archives; Gutman, 2005, pp. 209-210)

Queen Mother Elizabeth●, Queen Mother of Belgium (mother of King Léopold III), awarded Righteous Among the Nations title May 18, 1965 (Yad Vashem Archives; Gutman, 2005, p.113, 194-195, 209)

Professor Jean Lameer●, member of rescue group Les Marines, active in CDJ, awarded Righteous Among the Nations title June 12, 1980 (Yad Vashem Archives; Gutman, 2005, pp. 76-77, 159-160)

Nelly Lameer-Cormeau●, member of rescue group Les Marines, active in CDJ, awarded Righteous Among the Nations title June 12, 1980 (Yad Vashem Archives; Gutman, 2005, pp. 76-77, 159-160)

Mrs. Volont, assistant to Yvonne Névejean (Yad Vashem Archives; Gutman, 2005, pp. 76-77, 194-195)

Jean Henrickx●, Mayor of Uccle/Ukkel (Brussels), member of rescue group Les Marines, awarded Righteous Among the Nations title June 12, 1980 (Yad Vashem Archives; Gutman, 2005, pp. 76-77, 138-139, 159-160)

Jeanne Daman-Scaglione●, head Nos Petits, Brussels, major rescuer of Jewish children in Belgium, awarded Righteous Among the Nations title February 2, 1971 (Yad Vashem Archives; Gutman, 2005, pp. 76-77)

Jules Dubois-Pelérin*, banker, economist, provided funds for ONE (Gutman, 2005, p. 195)

Yvonne Jospa (Jewish), head, Children’s Department, Jewish Defense Committee, CDJ (Gutman, 2005, pp. 159-160)

Fela Perelman (Jewish), alias “Dumont,” leader, Jewish Devense Committee, CDJ, rescue activist (Gutman, 2005, pp. 76-77, 138-139, 159-160, 194-195)

Chaim Perelman (Jewish), leader, Jewish Defense Committee, CDJ, rescue activist (Gutman, 2005, pp. 76-77, 138-139, 159-160, 194-195)

Father Lucien Rausch●, Curé of Felene, Namur Privince, worked with Fela Perelman and Wolf Joseph Kligsberg to rescue Jewish children, awarded Righteous Among the Nations title August 15, 1981 (Yad Vashem Archives; Gutman, 2005, pp. 76-77, 217)

Father Oscar Smeets●, operated home for boys, Cerce Ozanam, in Wegnez-lez Pépinster, which hid and sheltered young Jewish boys, awarded Righteous Among the Nations title June 13, 1991 (Yad Vashem Archives; Gutman, 2005, pp. 234-235)

Roger Pire, assistant to Father Oscar Smeets in Cerce Ozanam Home for Boys, awarded Righteous Among the Nations title (Yad Vashem Archives; Gutman, 2005, pp. 234-235)

Mr. Stacq, assistant to Yvonne Nèvejean, head summer camps, ONE (Gutman, 2005, pp. 194-195)

Notre Dame des Pauvres Home, Banneux, Belgium, worked with Van den Berg Rescue Network, saved 33 Jewish children in school/home (Gutman, 2005, p. 146)

Director Abbé Louis Jamin●, worked with Albert van den Berg Rescue Network, awarded Righteous Among the Nations title July 28, 1998 (Yad Vashem Archives; Gutman, 2005, p. 146)

Notre Dame des Sept Douleurs Convent, outside Brussels, Belgium, hid and sheltered 48 Jewish girls, worked with CDJ (Gutman, 2005, pp. 180-181)

Mother (Mère) Marie Eustelle●, awarded Righteous Among the Nations title August 2, 1994 (Yad Vashem Archives; Gutman, 2005, pp. 180-181)

Mother Superior Agnes●, awarded Righteous Among the Nations title August 2, 1994 (Yad Vashem Archives; Gutman, 2005, pp. 180-181)

Sister Marie Cécile●, awarded Righteous Among the Nations title August 2, 1994 (Yad Vashem Archives; Gutman, 2005, pp. 180-181)

Andree Geulen● (layperson), worked with Ida Sterno (Jewish) of the CDJ to save Jewish children, awarded Righteous Among the Nations title August 2, 1989 (Yad Vashem Archives; Gutman, 2005, pp. 128-129, 180-181)

Notre Dame du Bon Conseil (Our Lady of Good Counsel) Convent – Boarding School, Anderghem, Belgium, between 1942 and 1944, hid and sheltered numerous Jewish girls (Gutman, 2005, pp. 229-230)

Mother Superior Sister Urbaine (Marie Joséphine Schoofs)●, awarded Righteous Among the Nations title August 2, 1995 (Yad Vashem Archives; Gutman, 2005, pp. 229-230)

Sister Amalienne (Bertha Braekmans; Gutman, 2005, pp. 229-230)

Sister Archangéle (Lucie Quevauvillers; Gutman, 2005, pp. 229-230)

Sister Marie-Reine (Hubertina Verstappen; Gutman, 2005, pp. 229-230)

Sister Bridget (Bridget Fitzgerald; Gutman, 2005, pp. 229-230)

Sister Bernadette (Marie-Josée Giet; Gutman, 2005, pp. 229-230)

Sister Rodriguez (Franziska Catharina Weber; Gutman, 2005, pp. 229-230)

Our Lady of Zion (Notre Dame de Sion; Gutman, 2005)

Priory of the Grand Beguinage Convent, Louvain/Leuven, hid Jews (Gutman, 2005, p. 243)

Cannon Armand Thiery●, hid, transferred and aided Jews during German occupation of Belgium, one woman waved with Mrs. Grunia Schicharewitch (Jewish), a professor at Louvain University, awarded Righteous Among the Nations title June 26, 1980 (Yad Vashem Archives; Gutman, 2005, pp. 243, 272)

George Wilmes●, worked with Cannon Armand Thiery to save Jews in Louvain/Leuven, Belgium, awarded Righteous Among the Nations title (Yad Vashem Archives; Gutman, 2005, pp. 2743, 272-273)

Emma Wilmes●, worked with Cannon Armand Thiery to save Jews in Louvain/Leuven, Belgium, awarded Righteous Among the Nations title (Yad Vashem Archives; Gutman, 2005, pp. 2743, 272-273)

Redemptionist Order, Belgium (Gutman, 2005, pp. 73-74)

Father Laurent Couppé●+, hid, sheltered, provided for and moved Jews to save their lives, awarded Righteous Among the Nations title March 17, 1974 (Yad Vashem Archives; Gutman, 2005, pp. 73-74)

Father Henry (Dom Bruno) Reynders Rescue Network, Louvain/Leuven, Belgium(Gutman, 2004; Gutman, 2005, pp. 36-37, 194-195, 152-153, 218-219; Papeleux, 1980, 1981; Teitelbaum-Hirsch; Reynders, En Feuilletant Mon Cahier de Notes; Resistance, Pere Bruno Reynders, Juste des Nations)

Father Henry (Dom Bruno) Reynders● (b. 1903), Benedictine Order, Louvain, France, leader, awarded Righteous Among the Nations title October 10, 1964 (Yad Vashem Archives; Gutman, 2005, pp. 36-37, 152-153, 218-219)

Albert van den Berg●+*, awarded Righteous Among the Nations title July 19, 1995 (Yad Vashem Archives; Gutman, 2005, pp. 218-219; Matteazzi, 1999)

Jules Dubois-Pelérin●, banker, supplied funds for resue of Jews, awarded Righteous Among the Nations title (Yad Vashem Archives; Gutman, 2005, pp. 194-195, 218-219)

Dr. Jean Reynders●, Ixelles, Brussels, brother of Father Henry Reynders, hid Jews, awarded Righteous Among the Nations title September 8, 1993 (Yad Vashem Archives; Gutman, 2005, pp. 218-219)

Father Maurice Robinet Rescue Network, Brussels, Belgium, may have helped as many as 400 Jewish children in Brussels (Moore, 2010, pp. 286, 441n133)

Father Maurice Robinet

Sacre Coeur (Sacred Heart) Convent, Nivelles, Belgium, hid Jewish girl (Gutman, 2005, p. 275)

Mother Superior Marie Xavier●, awarded Righteous Among the Nations title June 26, 1980 (Yad Vashem Archives; Gutman, 2005, p. 275)

Other sisters (Gutman, 2005, p. 275)

Emma Wilmes●, wife of Georges Wilmes, hid Jews, awarded Righteous Among the Nations title June 26, 1980 (Yad Vashem Archives; Gutman, 2005, pp. 272-273, 275)

Georges Wilmes●, hid Jews, awarded Righteous Among the Nations title June 26, 1980 (Yad Vashem Archives; Gutman, 2005, pp. 272-273, 275)

Helped by:

Father Arman Thiery●, awarded Righteous Among the Nations title (Yad Vashem Archives; Gutman, 2005, pp. 272-273, 275)

Saint André School, Verviers, Belgium, hid Jewish boys, see also La Providence Orphanage, Hodimont, Verviers, Belgium (Gutman, 2005, pp. 170-171)

Saint Elizabeth Clinic (nursing school), Bois-de-Breux, near Liège/Liuk, Belgium, hid, sheltered and cared for young Jewish women in nursing school (Gutman, 2005, p. 138)

Sister (Mother Superior) Madeline Herbecq●, awarded Righteous Among the Nations title June 13, 1995 (Yad Vashem Archives; Gutman, 2005, p. 138)

Sister Germaine Bribosia●, awarded Righteous Among the Nations title June 13, 1995 (Yad Vashem Archives; Gutman, 2005, p. 138)

Sister Madeline Moguet●, awarded Righteous Among the Nations title June 13, 1995 (Yad Vashem Archives; Gutman, 2005, p. 138)

Saint Jean Baptiste Parish

Saint Jean Berchmans College
, Brussels, Belgium, part of Benekykt Grynpas Rescue Network, hid, sheltered, protected large group of Jews in college during the German occupation; see also Grynpas Rescue Network (Gutman, 2005, pp. 82, 132)

Professor Benedykt Grynpas● (Baptised Jew), founder, leader, awarded Righteous Among the Nations title June 24, 1975 (Yad Vashem Archives; Gutman, 2005, pp. 82, 132, 147, 259)

Father Jean-Baptist Janssens●, Jesuit Society (SJ), awarded Righteous Among the Nations title June 24, 1975 (Yad Vashem Archives; Gutman, 2005, pp. 82, 132, 147, 259)

Father Jean-Baptist de Coster●, headed the College of Saint Jean Berchmans, Brussels, awarded Righteous Among the Nations title June 24, 1975 (Yad Vashem Archives; Gutman, 2005, pp. 82, 132, 147, 259)

Father Jean Baptist de Ligne-Prince●, awarded Righteous Among the Nations title (Yad Vashem Archives; Gutman, 2005, pp. 82, 132, 147, 259)

Father Henri van Oostayen●, Red Cross, awarded Righteous Among the Nations title (Yad Vashem Archives; Gutman, 2005, pp. 82, 132, 147, 259)

Jesuit Order (Society of Jesus; SJ), Brussels, Belgium (Gutman, 2005, pp. 82, 132, 147, 259)

Ester Grynpas (Jew; Gutman, 2005, p. 132)

Saint John Nicholas Parish, Brusseles-Schaerbeer, Belgium (Gutman, 2005)

Saint-Joseph Home in Huy, Belgium (Gutman, 2005)

Sister Lutgarde, Soeurs de la Charité

Sisters of Charity of Besancon (The Queen Elisabeth Home), Jamoigne-sur-Semois, Belgium (Gutman, 2005)

Sisters of Compassion, see Soeurs de la Misericorde

Sisters of the Filles de la Sagesse (Daughters of Wisdom) Convent, Durby, Belgium, hid young Jewish girls in convent during German occupation (Gutman, 2005, pp. 87-88)

Mother Superior Germaine Delcuigne● (Sister Aline) de la Purification (Gutman, 2005, pp. 87-88)

Sister Marie Françoise (Gutman, 2005, pp. 87-88)

Sister Anne Marie (Gutman, 2005, pp. 87-88)

Sister Emma (Gutman, 2005, pp. 87-88)

Sister Marie Constance (Gutman, 2005, pp. 87-88)

Soeurs de la Misericorde  (Sisters of Compassion), hid Jewish children, worked with Father André Meunier, teacher in seminary in Liege/Luik (Gutman, 2005, p. 186)

Soeurs du Très St. Sauveur Convent, Anderlecht, Brussels, Belgium (Gutman, 2005)

Mother Superior Marie-Aurélie (Eugénie Leloup; Gutman, 2005)

Abbé Jan Bruylandts●, worked with CDJ, awarded Righteous Among the Nations title April 16, 1978 (Yad Vashem Archives; Gutman, 2005, pp. 56-57)

Ursuline Convent, Auvillar (Tern-et-Garonne), southwest France (Gutman, 2005, pp. 169, 221)

Germain Robaeys● (Sister Celine), awarded Righteous Among the Nations title June 10, 1982 (Yad Vashem Archives; Gutman, 2005, p. 221)

Marguerite Beyls● (Sister Marguerite), awarded Righteous Among the Nations title June 10, 1982 (Yad Vashem Archives; Gutman, 2005, p. 47)

Anne-Marie de Cauves● (Sister Didier), awarded Righteous Among the Nations title June 10, 1982 (Yad Vashem Archives; Gutman, 2005)

Marguerite Waffelaert● (Sister Théophilus), awarded Righteous Among the Nations title June 10, 1982 (Yad Vashem Archives; Gutman, 2005, p. 268)

Sister (Mother Superior) Marie Placide●, head (Gutman, 2005, p. 221)

Van den Berg - Fonsney Rescue Network, Liège/Luik Region, Belgium, see also Louis-Joseph Kerkhofs Rescue Network

Rescue network that cooperated with Kerkhofs Rescue Group in Liège area of Belgium.  Hid Jewish children and provided aid to 229 Jews, 80 of them children.  Van den Berg was arrested and sent to the Vaught concentration camp in Holland, and later to the Neuengamme concentration camp in Germany.  He died of exhaustion shortly after his liberation.  His brother-in-law, Georges Fonsny, took over the network after van den Berg’s arrest. (Yad Vashem Archives; Gutman, 2005, pp. xxxi, 73, 252-253; Matteazzi, 1999; Moore, 2010, pp. 197-199, 201, 282-284, 285-289, 328; Papeleux, 1980, 1981)

Albert van den Berg●+* (layperson), leader, organizer, lawyer, awarded Righteous Among the Nations title July 19, 1995 (Yad Vashem Archives; Gutman, 2005, pp. 218-219, 252-253; Matteazzi, 1999)

Georges Fonsny● (layperson), brother-in-law of Albert van den Berg, took over network after Van Den Berg’s arrest by the Gestapo, awarded Righteous Among the Nations title March 27, 1996 (Yad Vashem Archives; Gutman, 2005, pp. 119, 252-253)

Germaine (Van den Berg) Fonsny●, wife of Georges Fonsny, awarded Righteous Among the Nations title March 27, 1996 (Yad Vashem Archives; Gutman, 2005, pp. 119, 252-253)

Monsignor Louis-Joseph Kerkhofs●, “Prince of Charity,” leader of Kerkhofs Rescue Network, awarded Righteous Among the Nations title July 6, 1981 (Yad Vashem Archives; Gutman, 2005, pp. 151, 252-253)

Father Dom Bruno (Henri Reynder)●, Mont César, Louvain, leader of Reynders Rescue Network, awarded Righteous Among the Nations title October 10, 1964 (Yad Vashem Archives; Gutman, 2005, pp. 152-153, 218-219)

Pierre Coune●+, secretary to Albert van den Berg, awarded Righteous Among the Nations title (Yad Vashem Archives; Gutman, 2005, pp. 252-253)

Father (Abbé) Louis Jamin●, head Children’s Home in Banneux, saved 33 Jewish children in home, awarded Righteous Among the Nations title July 28, 1998 (Yad Vashem Archives; Gutman, 2005, p. 146)

Paula Marchal●, civil clerk, Bressous, Liège, Belgium, helped obtain ration documents to feed Jews, awarded Righteous Among the Nations title March 27, 1996 (Yad Vashem Archives; Gutman, 2005, p. 119)

George Ponsenni, brother-in-law of Albert van den Berg; took over Rescue Network after Albert’s arrest in the summer of 1943 (Gutman, 2005, pp. 252-253)

Father Ernst Rixon●+*, hid Jews in his home where he lived with his sister, Irma Rixon, arrested and sent to Germany, died in custody, awarded Righteous Among the Nations title March 9, 1994 (Yad Vashem Archives; Gutman, 2005, pp. 220-221)

Irma Rixon●, Liege/Luik, Belgium, sister of Father Ernst Rixon, hid Jews in her home with her brother, Father Ernst Rixon, awarded Righteous Among the Nations title March 9, 1994 (Yad Vashem Archives; Gutman, 2005, pp. 220-221)

Lucienne Tilman+ (Gutman, 2005)

Berthe Vandenkieboom, Bureau de L’Enfance au Grandair

Father (Abbé) Emil Boufflette●+* (killed by Germans), Vicar of Liege/Luik, Belgium, hid and sheltered numerous Jews during German occupation, helped by his father, Louis Boufflette, and mother, Maria Boufflette, awarded Righteous Among the Nations title May 28, 1978 (Yad Vashem Archives; Gutman, 2005, pp. 52-53)

Louis Boufflette●, hid Jews along with his son, Father (Abbé) Emil Boufflette, awarded Righteous Among the Nations title May 28, 1978 (Yad Vashem Archives; Gutman, 2005, pp. 52-53)

Maria Boufflette●, hid Jews along with her son, Father (Abbé) Emil Boufflette, awarded Righteous Among the Nations title May 28, 1978 (Yad Vashem Archives; Gutman, 2005, pp. 52-53)

Helped by:

Capuchin Fathers from Verviers, Belgium (Papeleux, 1980, 1981)

German Franciscans, Herstal, Belgium (Papeleux, 1980, 1981)

La Vierge des Pauvres Home, at Château des Fawes, Sisters of Saint Vincent de Paul (Papeleux, 1980, 1981)

Individual Clergy Belgium:

Cardinal Joseph-Ernst van Roey, head of Catholic Church in Belgium, Archbishop of Malines (Gutman, 2005)

Monsignor Leonard van Eynde, Vice-General to Cardinal Roey (Gutman, 2005)

Bishop of Mechelen

Bishop (Monsignor) Louis Joseph Kerkhofs●, Liège/Liuk, Belgium, “Prince of Charity,” awarded Righteous Among the Nations title July 6, 1981 (Yad Vashem Archives; Gutman, 2005, pp. 151, 252-253)

Father (Abbé) Joseph André● of Namur, Regional Seminary, Bastogne, André Aid/Rescue Network, head L’Aide Chrétienne aux Israelites (ACI), awarded Righteous Among the Nations title November 26, 1968 (Yad Vashem Archives; Gutman, 2005, pp. 36-37, 186)

Abbé Emile Boufflette●+* (killed by Germans), awarded Righteous Among the Nations title May 28, 1978 (Yad Vashem Archives; Gutman, 2005, pp. 52-53, 186)

Abbé Jan Bruylandts●, Brussels, Belgium, awarded Righteous Among the Nations title April 16, 1978 (Yad Vashem Archives; Gutman, 2005, pp. 56-57)

Father Pierre Caphart●, Chaplain, JOC, awarded Righteous Among the Nations title July 14, 1971 (Yad Vashem Archives; Gutman, 2005, pp. 60-61, 262)

Father Jacques Castecker●, Chaplain, Institut de la Providence, Templeuve, Belgium, awarded Righteous Among the Nations title February 9, 1997 (Yad Vashem Archives; Gutman, 2005, p. 62)

Father Hubert Celis●, Van den Berg Rescue Network, awarded Righteous Among the Nations title March 25, 1980 (Yad Vashem Archives; Futman, 2005, pp. 63-64)

Father Louis Celis●, Gotem Village, Liège/Liuk region, Belgium,  awarded Righteous Among the Nations title March 25, 1980 (Yad Vashem Archives; Gutman, 2005, pp. 64-65)

Father Paul Coenraets●, head of Salesian Don Bosco Order, Liège/Liuk, Belgium, awarded Righteous Among the Nations title March 28, 1979 (Yad Vashem Archives; Gutman, 2005, pp. 68-69)

Father Jean Cottiaux●, awarded Righteous Among the Nations title July 10, 1994 (Yad Vashem Archives; Gutman, 2005, p. 72)

Father Laurent Couppé●, awarded Righteous Among the Nations title March 17, 1974 (Yad Vashem Archives; Gutman, 2005, pp. 73-74)

Father Léonce Coutuer●, awarded Righteous Among the Nations title (Yad Vashem Archives; Gutman, 2005)

Father Pierre Darblay●, awarded Righteous Among the Nations title December 3, 1981 (Yad Vashem Archives; Gutman, 2005, p. 77)

Father Petrus De Beukelaar●, Schotten, Belgium, Jewish children, protected Belgian Christians from forced labor service, awarded Righteous Among the Nations title July 20, 1999 (Yad Vashem Archives; Gutman, 2005, p. 79)

Father Jean-Marie Decort●, awarded Righteous Among the Nations title April 28, 1999 (Yad Vashem Archives; Gutman, 2005, pp. 74-75)

Father Jean-Baptiste De Coster●, awarded Righteous Among the Nations title June 24, 1975 (Yad Vashem Archives; Gutman, 2005, pp. 82, 132, 147)

Father Louis de Gruyter●, Bishop Kerkhofs Rescue Network, Liège/Liuk, Belgium, hid Jewish family in his home, awarded Righteous Among the Nations title February 9, 1997 (Yad Vashem Archives; Gutman, 2005, pp. 84, 151, 186)

Abbé De Petter, J.D. ●, awarded Righteous Among the Nations title July 14, 1971 (Yad Vashem Archives; Gutman, 2005, p. 94)

Father Aan de Stegge●, awarded Righteous Among the Nations title (Yad Vashem Archives)

Father (Abbé) Auguste Doyen●, Liège/Liuk, Belgium, awarded Righteous Among the Nations title March 26, 1998 (Yad Vashem Archives; Gutman, 2005, p. 106)

Father Ermotte, Liège/Liuk, Belgium, hid Jews, worked with Father Meunier in Liège/Liuk area of Belgium (Gutman, 2005, p. 186)

Father (Abbé) Folliet●, awarded Righteous Among the Nations title (Yad Vashem Archives; Gutman, 2005)

Father Mathieu Hendrikx, Dean of Hesselt (Gutman, 2005)

Father Herménégilde, St. Lazare Capuchin Convent, Tournai/Doornik, Belgium, worked with Father Octve Massurelle●+ to hide Jewish families (Gutman, 2005, p. 183)

Abbé Jean Houyet●, Liège/Liuk, Belgium, awarded Righteous Among the Nations title February 12, 1990 (Yad Vashem Archives; Gutman, 2005, p. 143)

Father (Abbé) Jacques Jacobs●, Liège/Liuk, Belgium, College St. Hadelin, Visé-Liège, awarded Righteous Among the Nations title July 21, 1978 (Yad Vashem Archives; Gutman, 2005, p. 145)

Abbé Louis Jamin●, Children’s Home, Banneux, Ven den Berg Rescue Network, awarded Righteous Among the Nations title July 28, 1998 (Yad Vashem Archives; Gutman, 2005, p. 146)

Father Jean Baptist Janssens● (Jesuit), Benedykt Grynpas Rescue Network, issued false baptismal certificates to Jews, awarded Righteous Among the Nations title June 24, 1975 (Yad Vashem Archives; Gutman, 2005, p. 147)

Father Jean-Baptist●, awarded Righteous Among the Nations title (Yad Vashem Archives; Gutman, 2005)

Father Octave Juvent●, Catholic Children’s Camp, hid Jewish children in his camp, awarded Righteous Among the Nations title April 10, 1994 (Yad Vashem Archives; Gutman, 2005, pp. 71, 192-193)

Father Theodore Künch●, Wasnes (near Brussels), Belgium, hid Jewish children, awarded Righteous Among the Nations title September 7, 1977 (Yad Vashem Archives; Gutman, 2005, p. 153)

Father (Abbé) Ivan Lambrette●, College of St. Hadelin Catholic School, Visé-Liège, Belgium, Kerkhofs Rescue Network, awarded Righteous Among the Nations title July 21, 1978 (Yad Vashem Archives; Gutman, 2005, pp. 145, 159)

Father Olivier Leboutte●, Liège, Bastogne, Belgium, hid Jewish children, awarded Righteous Among the Nations title July 25, 1993 (Yad Vashem Archives; Gutman, 2005, pp. 167-168)

Father Joseph Lempereur●, Liège, Belgium, hid Jewish family, awarded Righteous Among the Nations title May 28, 1978 (Yad Vashem Archives; Gutman, 2005, p. 169)

Canon Léon (Gutman, 2005, p. 200)

Father Edouard Lombaerts●, Uccle/Ukkel (Brussels), Belgium, hid Jewish family, awarded Righteous Among the Nations title November 14, 1994 (Yad Vashem Archives; Gutman, 2005, p. 173)

Reverend (Vicar) Theo Lux●, organized small rescue network, Zonhoven area,  awarded Righteous Among the Nations title March 20, 1980 (Yad Vashem Archives; Gutman, 2005, pp. 175-176)

Father Jean Massion●, parish priest, Flanders, Belgium, arranged to hide Jews, awarded Righteous Among the Nations title November 11, 1979 (Yad Vashem Archives; Gutman, 2005, p. 182)

Father Octave Masurelle●+, parish priest, Lamaine, Belgium, awarded Righteous Among the Nations title October 6, 1997 (Yad Vashem Archives; Gutman, 2005, p. 183)

Father Pierre May●, head Prêtres du Sacre Coeur Institute, Louvain/Leuven, hid Jewish family, awarded Righteous Among the Nations title May 31, 1966 (Yad Vashem Archives; Gutman, 2005, p. 183)

Father (Vicar) André Meunier●, Meunier Rescue Network, Liège/Liuk, St. John Nicolas Parish, Brussels Belgium, organized rescue network to hide and shelter numerous Jews, awarded Righteous Among the Nations title October 10, 1966 (Yad Vashem Archives, YV M31/594 Andre Meunier; Gutman, 2005, p. 186)

Father (Abbé) Georges Maurisse●, Village of Bougnimont (north of Neuchateau), Ardennes region), hid Jewish family, awarded Righteous Among the Nations title November 26, 1968 (Yad Vashem Archives; Gutman, 2005, p. 187)

Father Marcel Camille Paternotte●, Army chaplain, member MNB Resistence Group, member Father Joseph André Rescue Network, awarded Righteous Among the Nations title April 23, 1975 (Yad Vashem Archives; Gutman, 2005, pp. 203-204)

Father Paul (Gutman, 2005, p. 200)

Father Joseph Peeters●+*, Comblain-au-Port, hid Jews as member of Bishop Kerkhofs Rescue Network, killed on August 31, 1943, by Germans, awarded Righteous Among the Nations title February 10, 1983 (Yad Vashem Archives; Gutman, 2005, pp. 169, 205)

Father Petrus (Gutman, 2005)

Father Georges Piedboeuf●, hid Jews, found hiding places for others, awarded Righteous Among the Nations title October 17, 1994 (Yad Vashem Archives; Gutman, 2005, p. 207)

Father Lucien Rausch●, Cure of Felennes, Luxembourg Province, Belgium, worked with CDJ to hide and protect Jewish families, awarded Righteous Among the Nations title August 15, 1981 (Yad Vashem Archives; Gutman, 2005, pp. 76-77, 217)

Father Henri Reynders● (Bruno of Louvain; 1903-1981), Benedictine Order, major rescue activist, worked with Van-den-Berg Rescue Network, awarded Righteous Among the Nations title October 10, 1964 (Yad Vashem Archives; Gutman, 2005, pp. 152-153, 218-219)

Father Julien Richard●, College de St. Pierre et Paul, Uccle, Brussels, Belgium, awarded Righteous Among the Nations title April 2, 1995 (Yad Vashem Archives; Gutman, 2005, p. 220)

Father Ernst Rixhon●, Liège/Liuk, Belgium, Van den Berg Rescue Network, awarded Righteous Among the Nations title March 9, 1994 (Yad Vashem Archives; Gutman, 2005, pp. 220-221)

Father Edouard Robert●, Neufchateau, Lexembourg Province, Belgium, awarded Righteous Among the Nations title July 25, 1999 (Yad Vashem Archives; Gutman, 2005, pp. 221-222)

Father Oscar Smeets●, Cercle, Ozanam, Home for Boys, Wegnex-lez-Pépinster, Belgium, awarded Righteous Among the Nations title June 13, 1991 (Yad Vashem Archives; Gutman, 2005, pp. 234-235)

Father Alberic Steiger●, head Val-Kieu Monastery, Liège/Liuk, Belgium, Kerkhofs Rescue Network, awarded Righteous Among the Nations title March 28, 1998 (Yad Vashem Archives; Gutman, 2005, p. 239)

Abbé Marcel Stenne●, Village of Stumount, awarded Righteous Among the Nations title March 28, 1998 (Yad Vashem Archives; Gutman, 2005, p. 239)

Canon Armond Thiery●, awarded Righteous Among the Nations title June 26, 1980 (Yad Vashem Archives; Gutman, 2005, p. 243)

Father Henri van Oostayen●+*, Chaplain Red Cross, Grynpas Rescue Network, murdered in Bergen-Belsen, awarded Righteous Among the Nations title June 24, 1979 (Yad Vashem Archives; Gutman, 2005, p. 259)

Father Georges Van Causbroeck●, awarded Righteous Among the Nations title December 15, 1988 (Yad Vashem Archives; Gutman, 2005, p. 250)

Mother Superior-Sister Judith Eulalie●, “Dame de Marie” Catholic School, hid Jews in school, awarded Righteous Among the Nations title May 5, 1992 (Yad Vashem Archives; Gutman, 2005, p. 115)

Mother (Sister) Marie Eustelle●, awarded Righteous Among the Nations title (Yad Vashem Archives; Gutman, 2005)

Mother Superior Sister Euthalie●, Institut Saint Joseph des Soeurs de la Miscorde, Rosseignies/Rozenaken, Hainaut/Henegouwen, near La Louview; hid, sheltered and protected young Jews; awarded Righteous Among the Nations title July 15, 1998 (Yad Vashem Archives; Gutman, 2005, p. 115)

Mother Superior Marie de St. Augustin●, awarded Righteous Among the Nations title (Yad Vashem Archives; Gutman, 2005)

Mother Superior Hillegonda●, awarded Righteous Among the Nations title April 16, 1992 (Yad Vashem Archives; Gutman, 2005, pp. 140-141)

Sister (Mother Superior) Marie Agnes●, awarded Righteous Among the Nations title August 2, 1994 (Yad Vashem Archives; Gutman, 2005, pp. 180-181)

Sister Amalienne (Bertha Braekmans), Notre Dame du Bon Conseil (Our Lady of Good Counsel) Convent and Boarding School, Auderghen, Brussels, Belgium; hid, protected and sheltered young Jewish girls during German occupation (Gutman, 2005, 229-230)

Sister Archangèle (Lucie Quevauillers), Notre Dame du Bon Conseil (Our Lady of Good Counsel) Convent and Boarding School, Auderghen, Brussels, Belgium; hid, protected and sheltered young Jewish girls during German occupation (Gutman, 2005, 229-230)

Sister Marie Beirens●, awarded Righteous Among the Nations title March 22, 1999 (Yad Vashem Archives; Gutman, 2005, pp. 239-240)

Sister Bernadette (Marie-Josée Giet), Notre Dame du Bon Conseil (Our Lady of Good Counsel) Convent and Boarding School, Auderghen, Brussels, Belgium; hid, protected and sheltered young Jewish girls during German occupation (Gutman, 2005, 229-230)

Sister Berthile●, Mother Superior, Imelda Instituite, Children’s Home, Brussels, Belgium, awarded Righteous Among the Nations title April 12, 1992 (Yad Vashem Archives; Gutman, 2005, pp. 45-46)

Marguerite Beyls● (Sister Margerite), Ursuline Convent in Auvillar, France, awarded Righteous Among the Nations title June 10, 1982 (Yad Vashem Archives; Gutman, 2005, p. 47)

Sister Germaine Bribosia●, awarded Righteous Among the Nations title June 13, 1995 (Yad Vashem Archives; Gutman, 2005, p. 138)

Sister Bridget (Bridget Fitzgerald), Notre Dame du Bon Conseil (Our Lady of Good Counsel) Convent and Boarding School, Auderghen, Brussels, Belgium; hid, protected and sheltered young Jewish girls during German occupation (Gutman, 2005, 229-230)

Sister Helénè Capart (Gutman, 2005)

Sister Marie Cécile● Convent of Notre Dame des Sept Douleurs, Wezembeck (Brussels), Belgium, awarded Righteous Among the Nations title August 2, 1994 (Yad Vashem Archives; Gutman, 2005)

Mother Marie Chrysostome●, Carmelite Convent, Ruiselede, Belgium, awarded Righteous Among the Nations title November 5, 1994 (Yad Vashem Archives; Gutman, 2005, p. 67)

Sister Marie Constance, Sisters of the Filles de la Sagesse (Daughters of Wisdom Convent), Durbuy, Belgium; hid young Jewish girls in convent during German occupation of Belgium (Gutman, 2005, pp. 87-88)

Sister Agnes Coussemaeker (Sister Marie Gérard)●, Convent School, L’Institut de la Providence, Templeuve, Belgium, awarded Righteous Among the Nations title February 9, 1997 (Yad Vashem Archives; Gutman, 2005, p. 74)

Sister Anne Marie Didier De Caunnes●, Ursaline Conventm, Auvillar, France, awarded Righteous Among the Nations title (Yad Vashem Archives; Gutman, 2005, p. 269)

Sister Antoinette (Clair) De Caunnes●, awarded Righteous Among the Nations title (Yad Vashem Archives; Gutman, 2005)

Sister Maria (Germaine) De Pauw●, Institut Saint Joseph des Soeurs de la Misericorde, awarded Righteous Among the Nations title July 15, 1998 (Yad Vashem Archives; Gutman, 2005, p. 115)

Sister Ghislaine de Vogel●, Flanders, Belgium; hid, cared for refugee Jews, awarded Righteous Among the Nations title November 11, 1979 (Yad Vashem Archives; Gutman, 2005, p. 182)

Sister Jean-Marie Decourt●, awarded Righteous Among the Nations title (Yad Vashem Archives; Gutman, 2005)

Sister Hermaine (Aline) Delcuigne● (Sister Aline de la Purification), Sisters of the Filles de la Sagesse (Daughters of Wisdom), Durbuy, Belgium, awarded Righteous Among the Nations title May 27, 1997 (Yad Vashem Archives; Gutman, 2005, pp. 87-88)

Claire Delepaut● (Sister Louise-Marie), Sainte Lustgarde School, Lasne, Belgium, awarded Righteous Among the Nations title December 4, 1996 (Yad Vashem Archives; Gutman, 2005, p. 88)

Sister Emma, Sisters of the Filles de la Sagesse (Daughters of Wisdom Convent), Durbuy, Belgium; hid young Jewish girls in convent during German occupation of Belgium (Gutman, 2005, pp. 87-88)

Sister Marie-Eustelle●, Convent of Notre Dame des Sept Douleurs, Wezembeek (Brussels), Belgium, awarded Righteous Among the Nations title August 2, 1994 (Yad Vashem Archives)

Sister Feraille●, awarded Righteous Among the Nations title July 7, 1996 (Yad Vashem Archives; Gutman, 2005, p. 117)

Sister Marie François, Sisters of the Filles de la Sagesse (Daughters of Wisdom Convent), Durbuy, Belgium; hid young Jewish girls in convent during German occupation of Belgium (Gutman, 2005, pp. 87-88)

Sister Madeline Herbecq●, awarded Righteous Among the Nations title June 13, 1995 (Yad Vashem Archives; Gutman, 2005, p. 138)

Sister Madeline Hospel●, awarded Righteous Among the Nations title October 17, 1994 (Yad Vashem Archives; Gutman, 2005, p. 142)

Sister Jeanne (Marie Ignace)●, awarded Righteous Among the Nations title (Yad Vashem Archives; Gutman, 2005)

Sister Eugènie (Marie Amelié) Leloup (Gutman, 2005)

Sister Marie Leruth● (Sister Mathilde), awarded Righteous Among the Nations title November 10, 1975 (Yad Vashem Archives; Gutman, 2005, pp. 170-171)

Sister Agnes-Marie (Gutman, 2005)

Sister Anne Marie, Sisters of the Filles de la Sagesse (Daughters of Wisdom Convent), Durbuy, Belgium; hid young Jewish girls in convent during German occupation of Belgium (Gutman, 2005, pp. 87-88)

Sister Alphonse-Marie●, awarded Righteous Among the Nations title (Yad Vashem Archives; Gutman, 2005)

Sister Cecile-Marie (Gutman, 2005)

Sister Eustelle-Marie (Gutman, 2005)

Sister Marie-Reine (Hubertina Bernadette), Notre Dame du Bon Conseil (Our Lady of Good Counsel) Convent and Boarding School, Auderghen, Brussels, Belgium; hid, protected and sheltered young Jewish girls during German occupation (Gutman, 2005, 229-230)

Sister Berthe Naveau de Marteau●, Mother Superior Sacre Coeur Convent in Jette, Belgium, awarded Righteous Among the Nations title December 6, 1998 (Yad Vashem Archives; Gutman, 2005, p. 194)

Sister Mechtilde●, Imelda Institute Convent, Brussels, Belgium, awarded Righteous Among the Nations title April 12, 1992 (Yad Vashem Archives; Gutman, 2005, pp. 45-46)

Sister Madeline Moguet●, St. Elizabeth Clinic, Bois-de-Bever, near Liège/Liuk, Belgium, awarded Righteous Among the Nations title June 13, 1995 (Yad Vashem Archives; Gutman, 2005, p. 138)

Sister Marie de St. Augustin Nicolas●, awarded Righteous Among the Nations title February 24, 1993 (Yad Vashem Archives; Gutman, 2005, p. 196)

Sister Odonia●, Convent in Doel (north of Antwerp), Belgium, awarded Righteous Among the Nations title November 5, 1994 (Yad Vashem Archives; Gutman, 2005, pp. 200-201)

Sister Anna Otto (Marie Dora)●, awarded Righteous Among the Nations title December 30, 1998 (Yad Vashem Archives; Gutman, 2005, p. 201)

Sister Véronique Overcamp●, awarded Righteous Among the Nations title May 21, 1997 (Yad Vashem Archives; Gutman, 2005, p. 202)

Sister Marie Placide●, awarded Righteous Among the Nations title (Yad Vashem Archives; Gutman, 2005)

Mother-Sister Martha (Liguori) Putzeys●, awarded Righteous Among the Nations title May 31, 1990 (Yad Vashem Archives; Gutman, 2005, pp. 213-214)

Germaine Robaeys● (Sister Celine) , awarded Righteous Among the Nations title June 10, 1982 (Yad Vashem Archives; Gutman, 2005, p. 221)

Sister Roberta●, Convent in Doel (north of Antwerp), Belgium, awarded Righteous Among the Nations title November 5, 1994 (Yad Vashem Archives; Gutman, 2005, pp. 200-201)

Sister Rodriguez (Franziska Catharina Weber), Notre Dame du Bon Conseil (Our Lady of Good Counsel) Convent and Boarding School, Auderghen, Brussels, Belgium; hid, protected and sheltered young Jewish girls during German occupation (Gutman, 2005, 229-230)

Sister Madeline (Ines) Royer●, awarded Righteous Among the Nations title (Yad Vashem Archives; Gutman, 2005)

Sister Marthe Sibile●, awarded Righteous Among the Nations title October 17, 1994 (Yad Vashem Archives; Gutman, 2005)

Mother Superior Cécile Stingers●, Convent de la Misèricord, Héverlee (near Louvain/Leuven), Belgium, awarded Righteous Among the Nations title March 22, 1999 (Yad Vashem Archives; Gutman, 2005, pp. 239-240)

Sister Marie-Thérèse Thierry●, awarded Righteous Among the Nations title April 19, 1994 (Yad Vashem Archives; Gutman, 2005, pp. 242-243)

Sister Urbaine (Marie Schoofs)●, awarded Righteous Among the Nations title April 2, 1995 (Yad Vashem Archives; Gutman, 2005, pp. 229-230)

Sister (Veronique) Overkamp●, awarded Righteous Among the Nations title (Yad Vashem Archives; Gutman, 2005, p. 202)

Sister Veronique Van Acker●, awarded Righteous Among the Nations title (Yad Vashem Archives; Gutman, 2005)

Sister Léontine (Marie) Van Schoonbeeck●, awarded Righteous Among the Nations title (Yad Vashem Archives; Gutman, 2005)

Sister Marie-Alphonse Vandermolen●, awarded Righteous Among the Nations title (Yad Vashem Archives; Gutman, 2005, p. 262)

Marguerite Waffelaert● (Sister Théophilis), Ursuline Convent, Auvillar Héverlée (near Louvain/Leuven), awarded Righteous Among the Nations title June 10, 1982 (Yad Vashem Archives; Gutman, 2005, p. 268)

Sister Marie Xavier●

Sister Catherine (Emilie) Yvews●

Croatia

Guiseppe Ramiro Marcone, Apostolic “Visitor” (Benedictine Abbot)

Father Dragutin Jesih●*

Sister Cecilija (Jozica Jurin), Mother Superior, Convent in Split

Sister Ida Olga Obradovic

Sister Jurin Karitas

Czechoslovakia

Caritas (Catholic Charities), Dr. Gertrud Lueknor

Pastor Premysl Pitter●

Archdiosis of Prague, Czechoslovakia

Karel Kaspar

England (Gutman, 2007)

Sister Agnes (Clare Walsh)●, (Catholic; Gutman, 2007)

France (Gutman, 2003)

Catholic convents, schools, monasteries, hospitals, etc., that helped Jews

Abbaye de Tamie, north of Faverges, France (Gutman, 2003)

Abbay Saint-Etienne, Aubazine, Corrèze, France (Gutman, 2003, pp. 108-109)

Mother Superior Marie-Gonzague Bredoux●, awarded Righteous Among the Nations title August 5, 1992 (Yad Vashem Archives; Gutman, 2003, pp. 108-109)

Sister Marie-Thérèse Berger●, awarded Righteous Among the Nations title August 5, 1992 (Yad Vashem Archives; Gutman, 2003, pp. 108-109)

Alban Convent (Department of Tarn), France; sisters hid and sheltered Jewish girls during the German occupation (Gutman, 2003)

Auvillar Convent (Belgian Missionary Order), Department of Tarn-et-Garonne, France; sisters hid 100 Jewish refugee children and youth who were rescued from the nearby French camps of Rivesaltes, Gurs and Septfonds.  Worked with Jewish rescue organizations OSE, EIF and others (Gutman, 2003, p. 447)

Mother Superior Marie Placide●, awarded Righteous Among the Nations title July 15, 1981 (Yad Vashem Archives; Gutman, 2003, p. 447)

Sister Didier (Anne-Marie de Caunes)

Sister Claire (Antoinette de Caunes)

Sister Inès (Madelien Royer)

Helped by:

Monsignor Jules Saliège● (1870-1956), Archbishop of Toulouse, awarded Righteous Among the Nations title July 8, 1969 (Yad Vashem Archives; Gutman, 2003, pp. 492-493)

Monsignor Théas●, Bishop of Montauban, awarded Righteous Among the Nations title July 8, 1969 (Yad Vashem Archives; Gutman, 2003, pp. 517-518)

Belgian Catholic Order Convent, see Auvillar

Caritas (Catholic Charities), France (Gutman, 2003)

(Swisse) at Gurs, France

Catholic Boarding School for Girls, Fourvière, Lyons, France (Gutman, 2003, p. 207)

Mother Superior Hélène Dreyer● (Mother Marie de Jésus), hid, protected and sheltered young Jewish girls during German occupation, awarded Righteous Among the Nations title October 23, 1984 (Yad Vashem Archives; Gutman, 2003, p. 207)

Catholic Retirement Home, Rulhe, Aveyron, France (Gutman, 2003, p. 282)

Sister Antonette Massery●, director, hid, sheltered, protected Jews in her retirement home, worked closely with the Oeuvre Secour aux Enfants (OSE) Jewish rescue organization to save Jews, awarded Righteous Among the Nations title January 30, 1979 (Yad Vashem Archives; Gutman, 2003, p. 282)

Chavanod Convent, near Anncy, France

Christian Friendship (Amitié Chrétienne; AC), Lyon, France, 1940-1944; Christian rescue network, staunchly anti-Nazi. Founded by Father Pierre Chaillet● and Jean-Marie Soutou● after the Statut des Juifs was enacted on June 2, 1941; worked with OSE in Southern France

(Delpard, 1993; Gutman, 1990, 2003, pp. 89-90, 268; Kieval, 1973; Marrus-Paxton, 1981, pp. 207-209; Moore, 2010, pp. 57, 58, 123, 125, 128, 137; Poznanski, 1993; Rosengart, 1993; Zeitoun, 1996; Zuccotti, 1993, pp. 5, 130, 131, 141, 142)

Cardinal Pierre-Marie Gerlier●, head of the Catholic Church in France, honorary president of Christian Friendship, awarded Righteous Among the Nations title July 15, 1981 (Yad Vashem Archives; Gutman, 2003, pp. 89-90, 268, 506; Zuccotti, 1993, pp. 67, 72, 74, 139, 141, 146, 149-150, 297n75, 311n32)

Father (Abbé) Alexander Glasberg●, awarded Righteous Among the Nations title (Yad Vashem Archives; Gutman, 2003, pp. 441, 574; Zuccotti, 1993, pp. 72, 74-75, 126, 131, 132, 141)

Jesuit Father Pierre Chaillet●+, Bishop Delay of Marseilles, Lyons, founder, awarded Righteous Among the Nations title July 15, 1981 (Yad Vashem Archives; Gutman, 2003, pp. 132-133, 467, 506; Zuccotti, 1993, pp. 72, 140, 141, 243, 311n32)

Jean-Marie Soutou●+, co-founder, leader, Christian Friendship, arrested for helping Jews, awarded Righteous Among the Nations title March 22, 1994 (Yad Vashem Archives; Gutman, 2003, pp. 268, 506; Zuccotti, 1993, pp. 74, 131, 141, 311n46)

Sister Denise Aguadich● (Sister Joséphine; Sister Agudich-Paulin), Notre-Dame de Sion Convent, Grenoble, France, awarded Righteous Among the Nations title April 24, 1990 (Yad Vashem Archives; Gutman, 2003, p. 33)

Pastor Marc Boegner●, honorary president of Christian Friendship, president of the Protestant Church in France, head of CIMADE, awarded Righteous Among the Nations title June 21, 1988 (Yad Vashem Archives; Fabre, 1970; Gutman, 2003, pp. 89-90, 268; Zuccotti, 1993, pp. 58-59, 62, 141, 146, 150)

Father Roger Braun●, Southern France (Jesuit), Chaplain of Gurs and Rivesaltes French detention camps in Southern France (unoccupied zone), awarded Righteous Among the Nations title July 13, 1972 (Yad Vashem Archives; Gutman, 2003, pp. 108, 467; Zuccotti, 1993, p. 134)

Francois de Cellery d’Allens●, Lyons, France, awarded Righteous Among the Nations title (Yad Vashem Archives; Gutman, 2003, pp. 182, 194)

Marie-Antionette Cipan●, awarded Righteous Among the Nations title March 10, 1996 (Yad Vashem Archives; Gutman, 2003, p. 153)

Paul Cipan●, awarded Righteous Among the Nations title March 10, 1996 (Yad Vashem Archives; Gutman, 2003, p. 153)

Louis Paulin (Gutman, 2003)

Raymond Pichon●, commander police station, Nerac, France (Lot-et-Garonne), issued false documents for Amitié Chrétienne, awarded Righteous Among the Nations title November 10, 1997 (Yad Vashem Archives; Gutman, 2003, p. 441)

Baron Olivier de Pierrbourg (layperson)

Pierrette Poirier● (“Cathy”), worked also with OSE and the Garel Rescue Network, awarded Righteous Among the Nations title March 27, 1979 (Yad Vashem Archives; Gutman, 2003, pp. 448-449)

Pastor Roland de Pury● (Protestant), Lyons, France, co-founder Amitié Chrétienne, awarded Righteous Among the Nations title (Yad Vashem Archives; Gutman, 2003, pp. 132-133, 467)

Germaine Ribière● (d. 1999), layperson, student, awarded Righteous Among the Nations title July 18, 1967 (Yad Vashem Archives; Gutman, 2003, pp. 150, 467; Zuccotti, 1993, pp. 141, 240, 246)

Pastor André Robert●, awarded Righteous Among the Nations title (Yad Vashem Archives)

General Pierre Robert de Saint-Vincent●, Military Governor of Lyons, France, leader Armée Secrète (Secret Army; Gutman, 2003, pp. 472-473)

Cardinal-Monsignor Jules Gérard Saliège● (1870-1956), Archbishop of Toulouse, France, awarded Righteous Among the Nations title July 8, 1969 (Yad Vashem Archives; Gutman, 2003, pp. 467, 492-493; Zuccotti, 1993, pp. 146-149, 214, 240, 297n75)

Gaston Vincent●, Marseilles, awarded Righteous Among the Nations title January 28, 1986 (Yad Vashem Archives; Gutman, 2003, pp. 543-544)

Michel Vincent●, Marseilles, awarded Righteous Among the Nations title January 28, 1986 (Yad Vashem Archives; Gutman, 2003, pp. 543-544)

Susanne Jacquet Vincent●, Marseilles, awarded Righteous Among the Nations title January 28, 1986 (Yad Vashem Archives; Gutman, 2003, pp. 543-544)

Mother Superior Magda Zech●, Notre-Dame de Sion Convent, Grenoble, France, awarded Righteous Among the Nations title July 16, 1990 (Yad Vashem Archives; Gutman, 2003, p. 552)

Clarisses Saint-Claire Convent, Cimez, Nice region, France; convent was sued to hide, shelter and care for Jewish children who had been separated from their parents during the German occupation of Nice (Gutman, 2003, pp. 225, 281-282, 480)

Mother Superior Henriet Gret● (Sr. Anne-Marie), awarded Righteous Among the Nations title January 23, 1991 (Yad Vashem Archives; Gutman, 2003, pp. 281-282)

Sister Emmanuelle●, awarded Righteous Among the Nations title January 23, 1991 (Yad Vashem Archives; Gutman, 2003, pp. 225, 281-282)

Sister Rose●, awarded Righteous Among the Nations title January 23, 1991 (Yad Vashem Archives; Gutman, 2003, pp. 225, 281-282, 480)

Conferences de Saint Vincent de Paul, France

École Saint Francois (college), Ville-la-Grande (Haute-Savoir), France; Catholic priest faculty smuggled numerous Jews and other refugees into Switzerland during the German occupation (Gutman, 2003)

Father Pierre Frontin+, head, École Saint Francois (Gutman, 2003, pp. 87-88)

Father Louis Adrien Favre*●, (Killed) executed near Ville la Grand, awarded Righteous Among the Nations title November 6, 1986 (Yad Vashem Archives; Gutman, 2003, pp. 234-235)

Father Gilbert Pernoud●, awarded Righteous Among the Nations title June 4, 1987 (Yad Vashem Archives; Gutman, 2003, p. 434)

Father Raymond Boccard●, Juvénant Saint Francis de Sales School of Ville-la-Grande (Haute-Savoir), awarded Righteous Among the Nations title March 4, 1987 (Yad Vashem Archives; Gutman, 2003, pp. 87-88)

Father Francois Favrat* (Killed; Gutman, 2003)

Fathers of Our Lady of Zion Convent (Pères de Notre Dame de Sion), Paris, France (Gutman, 2003, pp. 201-202)

Father Superior Théomir Devaux●, head, Fathers of Our Lady of Zion, helped rescue hundreds of Jewish children, awarded Righteous Among the Nations title August 6, 1996 (Yad Vashem Archives; Gutman, 2003, pp. 201-202)

Father Elile Plankaert●, awarded Righteous Among the Nations title (Yad Vashem Archives)

Institution de la Croix, Antony, France (Gutman, 2003)

Jeunesse Ouviere Chrétienne (JOC), Father Joseph Folliet, Haute-Savoir, France

La Providence Convent, Le Coteau Village (near Roanne), Départment of Loire, France (Gutman, 2003, p. 331)

Mother Superior Marie-Louise Lafont● (Mother Marie-Madeleine), awarded Righteous Among the Nations title February 14, 1996 (Yad Vashem Archives; Gutman, 2003, p. 331)

Sister Germaine Veyrine●, awarded Righteous Among the Nations title February 14, 1996 (Yad Vashem Archives; Gutman, 2003, p. 331)

Le Petite Seminaire, Castres, (Aveyron), Tarn region, France (Gutman, 2003, pp. 455-456)

Monsignor Pierre Marie Puech●, head, awarded Righteous Among the Nations title December 14, 1992 (Yad Vashem Archives; Gutman, 2003, pp. 455-456)

Les Soeurs de Saint Régis Convent [Sisters of St. Regis], France; sisters hid Jewish refugees from Vichy and German occupation forces (Gutman, 2003)

Notre-Dame de Massip School, Capac, Department of Aveyron, saved 82 Jewish children (Gutman, 2003, pp. 518-519)

Sister Louise Thebe●, awarded Righteous Among the Nations title July 8, 1980 (Yad Vashem Archives; Gutman, 2003, pp. 518-519)

Oeuvre Saint-Germaine, Toulouse, France (Gutman, 2003, pp. 518-519)

Sister Louise Thebe●, awarded Righteous Among the Nations title July 8, 1980 (Yad Vashem Archives; Gutman, 2003, pp. 518-519)

Our Lady of Zion (Notre Dame de Sion), Melun, France, hid, protected and sheltered young Jewish women in school, worked with Father Jacques (Zuccotti, 1993, pp. 244, 354n62)

Mother Maria, head of school (Zuccotti, 1993, pp. 244, 354n62)

Our Lady of Zion Convent (Notre Dame de Sion), Paris, France, hid, sheltered, protected and transferred numerous Jews (Braunschweig, 1989; Zuccotti, 193, pp. 244, 354n62)

Mother Louisa, transferred and dispersed as many as 500 Jewish children to various religious institutions (Zuccotti, 1993, pp. 244, 354n62)

Our Lady of Zion Convent (Notre Dame de Sion), Grenoble, France (Gutman, 2003, p. 33)

Sister Josephine (Denise Paulin)●, member Amitié Chrétienne, OSE, awarded Righteous Among the Nations title April 24, 1990 (Yad Vashem Archives; Gutman, 2003, p. 33)

Sister Josephines Parents, hid Jewish children (Gutman, 2003, p. 33)

Our Lady of Zion Convent (Notre Dame de Sion), Lyon, France, hid, sheltered, protected and provided for Jews, hid Renée in student residence of church (Zuccotti, 1993, pp. 240, 253n48)

Petit Collège Saint-Thérèe de l’Enfant-Jésus, Avon, France (Gutman, 2003, pp. 116-117)

Father Jacques (Lucien) Bunel*●(Killed), Avon (Seine-et-Marne), France, director Petite College Sainte-Thérèse, hid fugitive Jews in the College, later arrested and deported to Mauthausen and Gusen, died shortly after liberation, awarded Righteous Among the Nations title January 17, 1985 (Yad Vashem Archives; Gutman, 2003, pp. 116-117)

Saint Charles de Lyon Convent, Chaponost (Rhône), France; sisters hid Jewish girls in convent during German occupation (Gutman, 2003, pp. 434-435)

Sister Perpétue●, Mother Superior of convent (Pierret Marquet), awarded Righteous Among the Nations title January 11, 1998 (Yad Vashem Archives; Gutman, 2003, pp. 434-435)

Saint François of Sales Convent in Voiron (Isère), France; sisters hid three Jewish girls in convent during German occupation (Gutman, 2003, pp. 434-435)

Mother Superior, Sister Thérèse Lucie●, awarded Righteous Among the Nations title January 11, 1998 (Yad Vashem Archives; Gutman, 2003, pp. 434-435)

Sister Françoise Elizabeth●, awarded Righteous Among the Nations title January 11, 1998 (Yad Vashem Archives; Gutman, 2003, pp. 434-435)

Saint-Germaine Boarding School, Vendine (near Toulouse), France (Gutman, 2003, p. 183)

Sister Louise Thèbe● (Gutman, 2003, p. 183)

Saint Joseph Convent, Albin (Department of the Tarn), France; sisters hid Jewish girls during the German occupation

Saint Joseph Convent, Bergerac, Department of Dordogne, France; several Jewish children were hidden, sheltered and protected in the Saint Joseph Convent in Bergerac (Gutman, 2003, p. 322)

Emile Kamper● (Sister Placide), awarded Righteous Among the Nations title November 5, 1997 (Yad Vashem Archives; Gutman, 2003, p. 322)

Saint Marguerite Convent, Clermont-Ferrand, Capital Department, Puy-de-Drôme, France (Gutman, 2003, p. 407)

Mother Superior Marie-Angélique Murat●, awarded Righteous Among the Nations title March 12, 1996 (Yad Vashem Archives; Gutman, 2003, p. 407)

Marthe Guillame●, pharmacy owner, awarded Righteous Among the Nations title March 12, 1996 (Yad Vashem Archives; Gutman, 2003, p. 407)

Marie La Farge●, headmistress, awarded Righteous Among the Nations title March 12, 1996 (Yad Vashem Archives; Gutman, 2003, p. 407)

Monsignor (Bishop) Gabriel Piguet

Sister Irène Guillame●, hid and protected young Jewish girls during the German occupation, awarded Righteous Among the Nations title March 12, 1996 (Yad Vashem Archives; Gutman, 2003, p. 407)

Saint Vincent de Paul, Flers (Orne), Normandy, France; sisters hid three Jewish children, Renée, Denise and Liliane Roth, during the German occupation (Gutman, 2003, p. 423)

Mother Superior Marie-Louise Pannelay●, awarded Righteous Among the Nations title February 19, 1992 (Yad Vashem Archives; Gutman, 2003, p. 423)

Sister Anne-Marie le Caherec●, awarded Righteous Among the Nations title February 19, 1992 (Yad Vashem Archives; Gutman, 2003, p. 423)

Sister Madelein Malolepszy●, awarded Righteous Among the Nations title Februarly 19, 1992 (Yad Vashem Archives; Gutman, 2003, p. 423)

Saint Vincent de Paul Convent, Cadouin, Department of Dordogne, France, hid, protected and sheltered the Jewish Crémieux family in the Saint Vincent de Paul Convent in Cadouin, France (Gutman, 2003, pp. 281-282)

Sister Granier●, Mother Superior, awarded Righteous Among the Nations title March 1, 1990 (Yad Vashem Archives; Gutman, 2003, pp. 281-282)

Clara Walsh● (Sister Agnès), awarded Righteous Among the Nations title March 1, 1990 (Yad Vashem Archives; Gutman, 2003, pp. 281-282)

Saint Vincent de Paul Hospice, Hay de Rose, France

Sisters of Charity, France

Mother Superior Anne-Marie Llobet●, Tarbes, France, awarded Righteous Among the Nations title February 6, 1986 (Yad Vashem Archives; Gutman, 2003, pp. 362-363)

Director Mixte Hospital

Sister Denise Bergon●, awarded Righteous Among the Nations title March 30, 1980 (Yad Vashem Archives; Gutman, 2003, pp. 72-73)

Sisters of Our Lady of Zion (Notre Dame de Sion), Paris, France

Mother Superior Louisa

Sisters of Zion Convent, France

Sister Francia

Villefranche de Rouergue Convent, Department of Aveyron, France

Catholic priests

Cardinal-Monsignor Jules Gérard Saliège● (1870-1956), Archbishop of Toulouse, France, awarded Righteous Among the Nations title July 8, 1969 (Yad Vashem Archives; Gutman, 2003, pp. 467, 492-493; Zuccotti, 1993, pp. 146-149, 214, 240, 297n75)

Cardinal Pierre Marie Gerlier●, Primate of All Gall, Archbishop of Lyons, France, awarded Righteous Among the Nations title (Yad Vashem Archives; Gutman, 2003, p. 268)

Bishop Louis de Courrèges d’Ustou●, Coadjutor to Cardinal Monsignor Jules Gerard Saliège, France, assisted in rescue of Jews; worked and coordinated with Georges Garel and OSE; placed Jews in Catholic homes and schools; responsible for helping to save 650 Jews from French camps, awarded Righteous Among the Nations title July 8, 1980 (Yad Vashem Archives; Gutman, 2003, pp. 182-183, 493)

Bishop Monsignor Alfred Daumas●+, Catholic Welfare Services (Oeuvres Social du Diocese), Nice, France, chaplain trade unions, worked with Joseph Bass and the Jewish rescue network Service André,  awarded Righteous Among the Nations title November 5, 1997 (Yad Vashem Archives; Gutman, 2003, p. 179)

Bishop Molissaron of Albi, France (Gutman, 2003)

Monsignor Gabriel Piguet, Bishop of Clermont-Ferrand, capitol of the Department of Puy-de-Dôme, France, worked with Marie Angélique Murat, Mother Superior of the Catholic convent in Clermond-Ferrand, in saving Jews (Gutman, 2003, p. 407)

Monsignor Paul Rémond●, Bishop of Nice, France, helped rescue more than 527 Jewish children while coordinating efforts with Jewish rescuer Moussa Abadi, awarded Righteous Among the Nations title December 2, 1991 (Yad Vashem Archives; Gutman, 2003, p. 463)

Monsignor Blanc, Vicar General of Marseilles Diocese, France

Monsignor Marius Chalve●, head of the Fontlongue Seminary, Miramas (Bouches du Rhône), France, awarded Righteous Among the Nations title (Yad Vashem Archives; Gutman, 2003, p. 134)

Monsignor Daniel Pézeril●, Paris, France, awarded Righteous Among the Nations title September 11, 1994 (Yad Vashem Archives; Gutman, 2003, p. 348)

Monsignor Pierre Bockel●, Lyons, France, awarded Righteous Among the Nations title September 5, 1988 (Yad Vashem Archives; Gutman, 2003, pp. 88-89)

Monsignor Pierre Marie Théas●, awarded Righteous Among the Nations title July 8, 1969 (Yad Vashem Archives; Gutman, 2003, pp. 517-518)

Father Jean Adrien●, Marist Order, Head of Saint-Marie, Saint-Chamond, Lyon, France, awarded Righteous Among the Nations title March 17, 1977 (Yad Vashem Archives; Gutman, 2003, p. 32)

Brother Francois Angyal●, Society of Mary, Hungary, awarded Righteous Among the Nations title February 26, 1981 (Yad Vashem Archives; Gutman, 2003, pp. 39-40)

Father Cyrille Argenti●, Marseilles, France, Greek Orthodox Church, awarded Righteous Among the Nations title March 1, 1990 (Yad Vashem Archives; Gutman, 2003, pp. 40-41)

Father Joseph-Auguste Arribat●, Chaplain, French camps, member Salesian Order, Villemur-sur-Tarn, Department of Haute Garonne, France, awarded Righteous Among the Nations title January 22, 1996 (Yad Vashem Archives; Gutman, 2003, pp. 43-44)

Father Agathange Bacquet, Franciscan monk, France (Gutman, 2003)

André Bagny● (Brother Louis), Society of Mary (Marist), France, awarded Righteous Among the Nations title March 28, 1979 (Yad Vashem Archives; Gutman, 2003, p. 51)

Father Anselme Barin●, Marie-en-Tinée, Ilonse, France, awarded Righteous Among the Nations title January 9, 1994 (Yad Vashem Archives; Gutman, 2003, p. 56)

Father Robert Bengel●, France, awarded Righteous Among the Nations title (Yad Vashem Archives; Gutman, 2003)

Father Pierre-Marie Benôit●, Capuchin Monastary, Rome, Italy, head of major rescue network in Southern France and Rome, Italy, head of DELASEM in Rome, Italy, awarded Righteous Among the Nations title April 29, 1966 (Yad Vashem Archives; Gutman, 2003, pp. 69-70)

Father Michel Blain●, Parish Priest, Notre Dame Auxiliation Church, Nice (Alps Maritimes), France; Chaplain, Don Bosco School for Boys, worked with Father Vincent Simeoni and Monsignor Paul Reymond, awarded Righteous Among the Nations title March 29, 1999 (Yad Vashem Archives; Gutman, 2003, pp. 85-86)

Father Raymond Boccard●, Juvénat St. Francois de Sales Catholic School, École St. Francois (College), Ville-la-Grand (Haute Savoie), France, awarded Righteous Among the Nations title March 4, 1987 (Yad Vashem Archives; Gutman, 2003, pp. 87-88)

Brother Jean-Baptiste Bonebeltz●, awarded Righteous Among the Nations title February 26, 1981 (Yad Vashem Archives; Gutman, 2003, p. 94)

Father Joseph Bonsirven, Lyon, France (Gutman, 2003)

Father Jean-Charles Bovet●, Priest of Archamps (Haute Savoie), France, awarded Righteous Among the Nations title October 4, 1989 (Yad Vashem Archives; Gutman, 2003, p. 105)

Father Maurice Brasche●, Boulogne-Billancourt (Haute de Seine), Paris, France, awarded Righteous Among the Nations title March 18, 1976 (Yad Vashem Archives; Gutman, 2003, pp. 106-107)

Father Roger Braun●, Southern France (Jesuit), Chaplain of Gurs and Rivesaltes French detention camps in Southern France (unoccupied zone), awarded Righteous Among the Nations title July 13, 1972 (Yad Vashem Archives; Gutman, 2003, pp. 108, 467; Zuccotti, 1993, p. 134)

Father Bremond (Jesuit), Marseilles, France (Gutman, 2003)

Father Jacques (Lucien) Bunel*●(Killed), Avon (Seine-et-Marne), France, director Petite College Sainte-Thérèse, hid fugitive Jews in the College, caught, arrested and deported to Mauthausen and Gusen, died shortly after liberation, awarded Righteous Among the Nations title January 17, 1985 (Yad Vashem Archives; Gutman, 2003, pp. 116-117)

Brother Raymond Carbonnet●, student of Bishop (Monsignor) Marius Chalve, Fontlongue Seminary in Miramas (Bouches du Rhône) , awarded Righteous Among the Nations title May 25, 1967 (Yad Vashem Archives; Gutman, 2003, p. 124)

Father Joseph Chaine, Lyon, France (Gutman, 2003)

Father Pierre Chaillet●+ (Jesuit), Lyons, France, founder Amitié Chrétienne, awarded Righteous Among the Nations title July 15, 1981 (Yad Vashem Archives; Gutman, 2003, pp. 132-133)

Brother Bernard Clerc●+, Marist Order, Budapest, Hungary, awarded Righteous Among the Nations title February 26, 1981 (Yad Vashem Archives; Gutman, 2003, pp. 155-156)

Father Francis Coeuret● (alias Lt. Benôit), Villars-sur-Val, Department of Alpes-Maritimes, France, awarded Righteous Among the Nations title July 25, 1993 (Yad Vashem Archives; Gutman, 2003, pp. 156-157)

Father Maurice Coffy●, France, awarded Righteous Among the Nations title (Yad Vashem Archives; Gutman, 2003)

Father (Abbé) Gilbert Cugnasse, head of “Petit Seminaire” of Pratlong, Tacaze (Tarn), France, awarded Righteous Among the Nations title May 3, 1999 (Yad Vashem Archives; Gutman, 2003, p. 172)

Father René Delafosse●, Ressins Agricultural Boarding School, Nandax (Loire), France, see also Father Victor Kolmer, awarded Righteous Among the Nations title December 16, 1996 (Yad Vashem Archives; Gutman, 2003, pp. 186, 324-325)

Father René De Naurois● (b. 1907), Toulouse, Haute-Garonne, Southern France, worked under Archbishop Saliège, awarded Righteous Among the Nations title December 26, 1998 (Yad Vashem Archives; Gutman, 2003, p. 193)

Father Théomir Devaux●, head, Les Pères de Sion Convent, Church of Saint Sulpice, Paris, France, awarded Righteous Among the Nations title August 6, 1996) (Yad Vashem Archives; Gutman, 2003, pp. 201-202)

Father Antoine Dumas●, Priest of Saint Just Village, Loire Department, France, awarded Righteous Among the Nations title May 5, 1990 (Yad Vashem Archives; Gutman, 2003, p. 215)

Brother Aimé-Edmond (Marcel Celestin Gallon●, alias M. Henri), Dominican Friar, Villa Roseland, Anoustrine (Pyrenees Orientales), France, and towns of Livia and Puigcereda, Spain, awarded Righteous Among the Nations title October 4, 1984

While staying at a sanitorium in Anoustrine, France (Pyrenees Orientales), Brother Edmmond, along with three other priests, managed to smuggle nearly one hundred Jewish refugees across the French border to Spain.  He provided IDs, forged papers and transit stamps.  He was caught and tortured by the Gestapo for these activities. (Yad Vashem Archives; Gutman, 2003, p. 259)

Father Paul Elias●, St. Auvent, Cussac town in Depatment of Huate-Vienne, France, awarded Righteous Among the Nations title February 19, 1992 (Yad Vashem Archives; Gutman, 2003, pp. 223-224)

Father Jean Espitallier●, Village of St. Pierre d’Argencon, Department Haute-Altes, France, hid, protected and saved Jews Henri and Suzanne Weill and their three children, awarded Righteous Among the Nations title May 16, 1989 (Yad Vashem Archives; Gutman, 2003, p. 229)

Father Francois Favrat*● (Killed), École St. Francois (College) Ville-la-Grand, France, awarded Righteous Among the Nations title November 6, 1986 (Yad Vashem Archives; Gutman, 2003, pp. 234-235)

Father Louise Adrien Favre* (Killed), École Saint-Francois a Ville la Grande, France, Annemasse; captured, tortured, shot

Marcel Celestin Gallon●, see Brother Aimé-Edmond

Father Gaston Fessard, France (Gutman, 2003)

Father Figuet+, France, Douvain Escape Network, helped hundreds of Jewish children escape from France to Switzerland (Gutman, p. 337)

Brother Ferdinand Fischer●, French Marist Order, Champagnant Convent, Budapest, Hungary, awarded Righteous Among the Nations title February 26, 1981 (Yad Vashem Archives; Gutman, 2003, pp. 238-239)

Father Jean Fleury●, Poitiers camp on Route Limoges (Vienne), France, head Fleury Rescue Network, awarded Righteous Among the Nations title March 24, 1964 (Yad Vashem Archives; Gutman, 2003, pp. 241-242)

Father (Abbé) Camille Folliet●, Annecy (Haute Savoie), France, founder CIMADE, , awarded Righteous Among the Nations title July 3, 1991 (Yad Vashem Archives; Gutman, 2003, p. 242)

Father (Abbé) Joseph Folliet, Chaplain, JOC, France

Father Marie-Amedée Folliet● (Chanoine), Saint Joseph des Fins Parish, Annecy (Haute Savoie), France, member of French underground, awarded Righteous Among the Nations title February 21, 1967 (Yad Vashem Archives; Gutman, 2003, p. 242)

Father Claudius Fournier●, Veres, Department of Haute-Savoie, France, awarded Righteous Among the Nations title March 11, 1993 (Yad Vashem Archives; Gutman, 2003, p. 245)

Father Pierre Frontin+, Principal, École St. Francois (“Juuvenat”), Ville-la-Grand, France, helped brother Raymond Boccard; Frontin was arrested by Germans and detained for five months (Gutman, 2003, pp. 87-88)

Father Félix Gagné●, Village of Siaugues St. Romain, France, awarded Righteous Among the Nations title January 3, 1996 (Yad Vashem Archives; Gutman, 2003, pp. 256-257)

Pastor André Gall●, awarded Righteous Among the Nations title December 22, 1983 (Yad Vashem Archives; Gutman, 2003, pp. 257-258)

Fluer Gall●, wife of Pastor André Gall, awarded Righteous Among the Nations title December 22, 1983 (Yad Vashem Archives; Gutman, 2003, pp. 257-258)

Father (Abbé) Simon Gallay●, Evian-le-Bains, Department of Haute-Savoie, France, awarded Righteous Among the Nations title September 19, 1989 (Yad Vashem Archives; Gutman, 2003, p. 258)

Father (Abbé) Albert Gau●, high school chaplain, Carcassone, France, awarded Righteous Among the Nations title November 20, 1986 (Yad Vashem Archives; Gutman, 2003, p. 263)

Father Marcel Genestier●, France, awarded Righteous Among the Nations title (Yad Vashem Archives; Gutman, 2003)

Father Pierre Girard●, Seminaire Universitaire, Montrejeau, Department of Haute Garonne, France, awarded Righteous Among the Nations title January 28, 1982 (Yad Vashem Archives; Gutman, 2003, p. 272)

Father Antoine Girardin●, France, awarded Righteous Among the Nations title (Yad Vashem Archives; Gutman, 2003)

Father (Abbé) Alexander Glassberg●, Amíte Christian, awarded Righteous Among the Nations title (Yad Vashem Archives; Gutman, 2003)

Father Louis Gosselin●, Louis Pasteur Hospital, Cherbourg, France, awarded Righteous Among the Nations title September 7, 1977 (Yad Vashem Archives; Gutman, 2003, p. 277)

Jean Grange●, assistant principal, Catholic Boarding School, Arbresle (near Lyons), France, assistant to father Léon Perret, awarded Righteous Among the Nations title March 28, 1979 (Yad Vashem Archives; Gutman, 2003, pp. 279-280)

Father (Abbé) Albert Gross●, Chaplain, Caritas-Suisse, Gurs concentration camp, France, awarded Righteous Among the Nations title March 5, 1989 (Yad Vashem Archives; Gutman, 2003, p. 283)

Alexander Hegedus (Brother Joseph)●, Budapest, Hungary, awarded Righteous Among the Nations title February 26, 1981 (Yad Vashem Archives; Gutman, 2003, p. 301)

Father François Imberdis●, Dormaize, Department of Puy de Dome, teacher in Clermond-Ferrand, France, awarded Righteous Among the Nations title June 4, 1973 (Yad Vashem Archives; Gutman, 2003, p. 308)

Father Abel Jacquet●, parish priest, Juvigny (near Annemasse, Department of Haute-Savoie), France, awarded Righteous Among the Nations title April 14, 1993 (Yad Vashem Archives; Gutman, 2003, p. 310)

Father (Abbé) Marius Jolivet●, parish priest, Collonges-sous-Salève (Haute-Savoie), Southern France, awarded Righteous Among the Nations title November 6, 1986 (Yad Vashem Archives; Gutman, 2003, p. 314)

Father Dimitri Klepinine●, Orthodox Church of the Intercession of the Holy Virgin, Rue Lovrmel, Paris, France, awarded Righteous Among the Nations title July 16, 1985 (Yad Vashem Archives; Gutman, 2003, p. 324)

Father Victor Kolmer●, Don Bosco Catholic Order, Principal of the Ressins Agricultural School, Nandax (Loire), France, awarded Righteous Among the Nations title December 16, 1996 (Yad Vashem Archives; Gutman, 2003, pp. 324-325)

Father (Abbé) Alphonse LaGarde, Southern France (Gutman, 2003)

Father Roger Ledain●, Pont-à-Mousson (near Nancy), France, awarded Righteous Among the Nations title June 4, 1989 (Yad Vashem Archives; Gutman, 2003, p. 350)

Father Claudius Longeray●, Parish of Mercier, near Annecy (Haute Savoie), France, awarded Righteous Among the Nations title May 16, 1989 (Yad Vashem Archives; Gutman, 2003, p. 365)

Father Henri de Lubac, Lyon, France (Gutman, 2003)

Father Eugène Marquet●, parish priest, St. Andre in Ann, France, awarded Righteous Among the Nations title September 7, 1988 (Yad Vashem Archives; Gutman, 2003, p. 375)

Father Auguste Mayrand●, (Dominican), Oullins, Lyon, France, awarded Righteous Among the Nations title August 21, 1990 (Yad Vashem Archives; Gutman, 2003, p. 388)

Father Henri Ménardais●, village priest, Chalmaison (Seine-et-Marne), Chaplain, Ballet of the Paris Opera, awarded Righteous Among the Nations title May 27, 1997 (Yad Vashem Archives; Gutman, 2003, pp. 390-391)

Father (Abbé) Pierre Mopty●, Montpellier, Lyons, France, awarded Righteous Among the Nations title May 16, 1989 (Yad Vashem Archives; Gutman, 2003, pp. 401-402)

Father Regis de Parceval (Dominican Prior), Marseilles, France, arrested and interned (Gutman, 2003)

Father Jean Parent●, Assistant Curate, Church of Saint-Just in Lyons, France, awarded Righteous Among the Nations title July 21, 1970 (Yad Vashem Archives; Gutman, 2003, p. 424)

Father André Payot●, Department of Haute-Savoie, France, awarded Righteous Among the Nations title March 25, 1979 (Yad Vashem Archives; Gutman, 2003, p. 429)

Father Gilbert Pernoud●, École St. Francois (College) Ville-la-Grand (Haute Savoir), France, awarded Righteous Among the Nations title June 4, 1987 (Yad Vashem Archives; Gutman, 2003, p. 434)

Father Joseph Marie Perrin●, director Dominican Friary, Marseilles, France, awarded Righteous Among the Nations title March 28, 1979 (Yad Vashem Archives; Gutman, 2003, p. 435)

Father Léon Perret●, head of Catholic boarding school, Arbresle (near Lyons), France, awarded Righteous Among the Nations title March 28,m 1979 (Yad Vashem Archives; Gutman, 2003, pp. 279-280, 435)

Father (Monsignor) Pierre-Marie Puech●, Head, Le Petit Seminaire, Castres, Tarn, France, awarded Righteous Among the Nations title December 14, 1992 (Yad Vashem Archives; Gutman, 2003, pp. 455-456)

Father (Monsignor) Daniel Pézeril●, Paris, France, rescued one hundred Jews in Paris, awarded Righteous Among the Nations title September 11, 1994 (Yad Vashem Archives; Gutman, 2003, p. 438)

Brother Albert Pfleger●, Budapest, Hungary, awarded Righteous Among the Nations title June 5, 1981 (Yad Vashem Archives; Gutman, 2003, p. 439)

Ladislas Pingiczer● (Brother Etienne), Marist Order, Budapest, Hungary, awarded Righteous Among the Nations title February 26, 1981 (Yad Vashem Archives; Gutman, 2003, pp. 445-446)

Father Emile Joseph Marie Planckaert●, French Army chaplain, Paris, France, awarded Righteous Among the Nations title April 16, 1972 (Yad Vashem Archives; Gutman, 2003, p. 447)

Father Joseph Relave●, Village of Courzieu, near Lyon, awarded Righteous Among the Nations title June 13, 1995 (Yad Vashem Archives; Gutman, 2003, pp. 461-462)

Father (Monsignor) Paul Rémond●, Bishop of Nice, France, awarded Righteous Among the Nations title December 2, 1991 (Yad Vashem Archives; Gutman, 2003, p. 463)

Father Jean Renou●, Dormans (Marne), France, awarded Righteous Among the Nations title October 22, 1998 (Yad Vashem Archives; Gutman, 2003, pp. 465-466)

Father Henri Révol●, Saint-Gervais-les-Bains, Department of Haute-Savoie, France, awarded Righteous Among the Nations title January 24, 1978 (Yad Vashem Archives; Gutman, 2003, p. 466)

Father Joseph Richard● (alias Joseph Duchamblo), Inspector-General of Le Petit Seminaire, Charance, Department of Haute-Alpes, awarded Righteous Among the Nations title April 22, 1974 (Yad Vashem Archives; Gutman, 2003, pp. 468-469)

Father Louis Richard●, Abbot la Maison d’Exercises Spirutuels, Notre Dame du Chatelard, Francheville le Haut, Lyon, France, awarded Righteous Among the Nations title January 28, 1982 (Yad Vashem Archives; Gutman, 2003, p. 469)

Father Roger Riebert●, Church of Saint Martin in Troyes, Capital of the Department of Hautes-Alpes, France, awarded Righteous Among the Nations title October 4, 1989 (Yad Vashem Archives; Gutman, 2003, p. 469)

Father Riquet, Paris, France (Gutman, 2003)

Father Georges Rocal● (Father Julien), St. Saud, Department of Dordogne, France, awarded Righteous Among the Nations title July 7, 1980 (Yad Vashem Archives; Gutman, 2003, p. 474)

Father (Abbé) Jean Joseph Rosay*● (Killed), Douvaine, Department of Haute-Savoie, France, died in Bergen-Belsen concentration camp, awarded Righteous Among the Nations title January 23, 1991 (Yad Vashem Archives; Gutman, 2003, pp. 337, 480)

Father (Abbé) Rostand, Nice, France (Gutman, 2003)

Father Oscar Rousseau●, Mons-en-Baroel Region, France, awarded Righteous Among the Nations title June 17, 1987 (Yad Vashem Archives; Gutman, 2003, p. 484)

Father Vincent Siméoni●, Abbot of the Don Bosco Monastery (Affiliated with the Saint-François de Sales Order in Nice), France, awarded Righteous Among the Nations title November 5, 1997 (Yad Vashem Archives; Gutman, 2003, p. 503)

Father Albert Simond●, Curé, Evian-le-Bains, France, awarded Righteous Among the Nations title September 19, 1989 (Yad Vashem Archives; Gutman, 2003, pp. 503-504)

Father Fernand Singerlé●, Venelles and Meyrargues (Bouches du Rhône), France, awarded Righteous Among the Nations title December 16, 1998 (Yad Vashem Archives; Gutman, 2003, p. 504)

Father (Abbé) Jean-Marie Soutou●, Southern France, awarded Righteous Among the Nations title March 22, 1994 (Yad Vashem Archives; Gutman, 2003, p. 506)

Father Robert Stahl●, Secretary General, Société de Patronage des Enfants Moralement Abandonnes (orphanage), Lille, Buisson, awarded Righteous Among the Nations title March 17, 1979 (Yad Vashem Archives; Gutman, 2003, pp. 507-508)

Father John Aan de Stegge●, Toulouse (Haute-Garonne), France, awarded Righteous Among the Nations title January 2, 1974 (Yad Vashem Archives; Gutman, 2003, p. 509)

Father Stève, Marseilles, France (Gutman, 2003), see Father Joseph-Marie Perrin

Father Jean Terruwe●+, Dutch Priest, Dammartin-en-Goële, Department of Seine-et-Marne, Paris, awarded Righteous Among the Nations title October 4, 1989 (Yad Vashem Archives; Gutman, 2003, pp. 515-516)

Cannon Raymond Vancourt●, Lille University, Lille, France, awarded Righteous Among the Nations title April 23, 1975 (Yad Vashem Archives; Gutman, 2003, pp. 535-536)

Father Lucien-Henri Vandevoorde●, Lille, France, awarded Righteous Among the Nations title March 18, 1993 (Yad Vashem Archives; Gutman, 2003, p. 537)

Father Vigoreux, Villon, France (Gutman, 2003, p. 543)

Father Georges Villepelet●, Seminaire Universitaire, near Lyons, France, awarded Righteous Among the Nations title January 20, 1982 (Yad Vashem Archives; Gutman, 2003, pp. 272-273, 543)

Father Marie-Jean Viollet●, Chatou (near Paris), France, awarded Righteous Among the Nations title July 25, 1993 (Yad Vashem Archives; Gutman, 2003, p. 544)

Catholic nuns

Mother Maria of Notre Dame de Sion, Melon, France (Gutman, 2003)

Sister Joséphine Denise Aguadich-Paulin●, Convent Notre Dame de Sion, Grenoble; member, Amitié Chrétienne, OSE, Paris, France, awarded Righteous Among the Nations title April 24, 1990 (Yad Vashem Archives; Gutman, 2003, p. 33)

Sister Marie Albert●, France, awarded Righteous Among the Nations title (Yad Vashem Archives; Gutman, 2003)

Francine Allenait● (Mother Saint Lucie), Member Saint Charles Order, Mother Superior Saint Jean de Arc Convent in Thizy (Rhône), France, awarded Righteous Among the Nations title November 5, 1997 (Yad Vashem Archives; Gutman, 2003, p. 36)

Sister Marie-Amedée●, France, awarded Righteous Among the Nations title (Yad Vashem Archives; Gutman, 2003)

Sister Andréa (Marie-Gabriella)●, France, awarded Righteous Among the Nations title (Yad Vashem Archives; Gutman, 2003)

Sister Cläre Barwitzky●, Chamonix, St. Etienne (Loire), France, awarded Righteous Among the Nations title March 20, 1991 (Yad Vashem Archives; Gutman, 2003, pp. 59-60)

Sister Jeanne Berchmans● (Meienhofer, Marie), Catholic Boarding School Thonon les Baines (Department of Haute-Savoie), French Alps, France, awarded Righteous Among the Nations title October 6, 1991 (Yad Vashem Archives; Gutman, 2003, p. 70)

Sister Marie-Thérèse Berger●, Abbye Saint Etienne Convent, Aubazine, Department of Correze in Central France, awarded Righteous Among the Nations title August 5, 1992 (Yad Vashem Archives; Gutman, 2003, p. 71)

Sister Denise Bergon●, Principal, Notre Dame de Massip Boarding School, Massip Department of Lot, Southwestern France, awarded Righteous Among the Nations title March 13, 1980 (Yad Vashem Archives; Gutman, 2003, pp. 72-73)

Sister Marguerite Bernes, (French), Mother Superior of the San Gianccomo Convent, Rome, Italy, awarded Righteous Among the Nations title January 16, 1975 (Yad Vashem Archives; Gutman, 2003, pp. 74-75)

Sister Marguerite (Henrica)●, France, awarded Righteous Among the Nations title (Yad Vashem Archives; Gutman, 2003)

Sister Marie-Gonzague Bredoux●, Mother Superior, Abbye Saint-Etienne Convent, Aubazine, Department of Correze in Central France, awarded Righteous Among the Nations title August 5, 1992 (Yad Vashem Archives; Gutman, 2003, pp. 108-109)

Sister Marie Castillon●, France, awarded Righteous Among the Nations title (Yad Vashem Archives; Gutman, 2003)

Anne-Marie de Caunes● (Sister Didier), Auvillar Convent, Terne-et-Garonne, France, awarded Righteous Among the Nations title May 3, 1982 (Yad Vashem Archives; Gutman, 2003, p. 182)

Antoinette de Caunes● (Sister Claire), Auvillar Convent, awarded Righteous Among the Nations title May 3, 1982

Hid and cared for 40 Jewish children during German occupation.  Some were eventually taken.  (Yad Vashem Archives; Gutman, 2003, p. 182)

Sister Alice Chevalier (Marie-Angélique ), Vernet la Varenne (Puy de Dôme), France, awarded Righteous Among the Nations title November 5, 1997 (Yad Vashem Archives; Gutman, 2003, pp. 147-148)

Sister Joséphine Chopin●, France, awarded Righteous Among the Nations title November 5, 1997 (Yad Vashem Archives; Gutman, 2003, p. 152)

Sister Clotile, Sisters of Saint Paul (Gutman, 2003)

Sister Madeline Cordier●, Champagnol (Jura), France, awarded Righteous Among the Nations title July 16, 1990 (Yad Vashem Archives; Gutman, 2003, p. 162)

Sister Marie-Louise Delechenault● (Marie de Jesus), France, awarded Righteous Among the Nations title (Yad Vashem Archives; Gutman, 2003)

Sister Marthe (Anette) Delesalle●, France, awarded Righteous Among the Nations title (Yad Vashem Archives; Gutman, 2003)

Victoria Depo, see Sister Marie Gilberte●

Mother Superior Jeanne Dessaigne● (Sister Marie Angèle), Allanche, France, awarded Righteous Among the Nations title (Yad Vashem Archives; Gutman, 2003)

Mother Marie de Jésus● (Hélène Dreyer), head of Catholic boarding school for girls at Fourvière, Lyons, France, awarded Righteous Among the Nations title (Yad Vashem Archives; Gutman, 2003)

Sister Emmenuelle●, Convent des Clarisses, France, awarded Righteous Among the Nations title January 23, 1991 (Yad Vashem Archives; Gutman, 2003, pp. 225, 281-282)

Sister Francia, Sister of Zion, Paris, France (Gutman, 2003)

Sister Elisabeth Françoise●, Convent of Saint François of Sales, Voiron (Isère), France, awarded Righteous Among the Nations title January 11, 1998 (Yad Vashem Archives; Gutman, 2003, p. 249)

Sister Marie-Gilberte● (Victoria Depo), head, La Charité Orphanage in Aix-en-Provence (Bouches du Rhône), France, hid and protected 10 Jewish children during the German occupation, awarded Righteous Among the Nations title March 26, 1998 (Yad Vashem Archives; Gutman, 2003, p. 194)

Sister Granier●, France, Mother Superior, Saint Vincent de Paul Convent in Cadouin, Dordogne, France, awarded Righteous Among the Nations title March 1, 1990 (Yad Vashem Archives; Gutman, 2003, pp. 280-281), see also Sister Clara Walsh

Mother Superior Henriette Gret● (Sr. Anne-Marie), Clarisses Saint-Clare Convent, Chimiez, France, awarded Righteous Among the Nations title January 23, 1991 (Yad Vashem Archives; Gutman, 2003, pp. 281-282)

Sister Irène Guillaume● (Marthe), France, awarded Righteous Among the Nations title March 12, 1996 (Yad Vashem Archives; Gutman, 2003, p. 407)

Sister Daniéla Haag●, Divine Providence de St. Jean de Bassel, Argentat, Department of Corréze, France, awarded Righteous Among the Nations title April 16, 1992 (Yad Vashem Archives; Gutman, 2003, p. 295)

Sister Jeanne Hertel●, Toulon, Var, France, awarded Righteous Among the Nations title November 13, 1984 (Yad Vashem Archives; Gutman, 2003, pp. 303, 486)

Sister Hyacinthe●, France, awarded Righteous Among the Nations title (Yad Vashem Archives; Gutman, 2003)

Sister Inès (Madeleine Royer), Convent in Auviller, Department of Tarn-et-Garonne, France (Gutman, 2003)

Mother Marie de Jesus● (Hélène Dryer), director, Catholic Boarding School for Girls ad Fourvière, Lyons, France, awarded Righteous Among the Nations title October 23, 1984 (Yad Vashem Archives; Gutman, 2003, p. 207)

Sister Emilie (Placide) Kamper●, Saint Joseph Convent, Bererac (Department of Dordogne), France, awarded Righteous Among the Nations title November 5, 1997 (Yad Vashem Archives; Gutman, 2003, p. 322)

Sister Marie Lafarge●, St. Marguerite Convent, Clermont-Ferrand, France, Department of Puy-de-Dôme, hid young Jewish girls during German occupation, awarded Righteous Among the Nations title March 12, 1996 (Yad Vashem Archives; Gutman, 2003, p. 407)

Sister Marie-Julie Lafont● (Mother Marie-Madeleine), Mother Superior of La Providence Convent, Le Coteau Village, near Roanne, Department of Loire, France, awarded Righteous Among the Nations title February 14, 1996 (Yad Vashem Archives; Gutman, 2003, p. 331)

Yvonne Laurent● (Louis de Gonzague), France, awarded Righteous Among the Nations title (Yad Vashem Archives; Gutman, 2003)

Sister Anne-Marie Le Cahérec●, Saint Vincent de Paul Order, Flers, Department of Orne, France, awarded Righteous Among the Nations title February 19, 1992 (Yad Vashem Archives; Gutman, 2003, p. 349)

Sister Anne-Marie Llobert●, Director, General Hospital of Tarbes, Department of Hautes Pyrénées, awarded Righteous Among the Nations title February 6, 1986 (Yad Vashem Archives; Gutman, 2003, pp. 362-363)

Sister Madeleine Malolepszy●, Saint Vincent de Paul, Flers, Orne, Normandy, France, awarded Righteous Among the Nations title February 19, 1992 (Yad Vashem Archives; Gutman, 2003, p. 370)

Sister Antoinette Massery●, director, retirement home, Rulhe, Aveyron, France, awarded Righteous Among the Nations title January 30, 1979 (Yad Vashem Archives; Gutman, 2003, p. 382)

Sister Marguerite Olivier●, France, awarded Righteous Among the Nations title (Yad Vashem Archives; Gutman, 2003)

Sister Annette Matter●, France, awarded Righteous Among the Nations title March 18, 1993 (Yad Vashem Archives; Gutman, 2003)

Sister Viviane Matter●, Paris, France, awarded Righteous Among the Nations title March 18, 1993 (Yad Vashem Archives; Gutman, 2003)

Sister (Mother Superior) Marie-Angélique Murat●, Saint Marguerite Convent in Clermont-Ferrand,France, awarded Righteous Among the Nations title March 12, 1996 (Yad Vashem Archives; Gutman, 2003, p. 407)

Sister Marie-Louise Pannelay●, Mother Superior St. Vincent de Paul, Flers, (Orne), Normandy, France, awarded Righteous Among the Nations title February 19, 1992 (Yad Vashem Archives; Gutman, 2003, p. 423)

Sister Pierrette● (Perpétue), Mother Superior, St. Charles DeLyon, Chapost (Rhône), France, awarded Righteous Among the Nations title January 11, 1998 (Yad Vashem Archives; Gutman, 2003, pp. 434-435)

Sister Jeanne Dominique Pinet●, France, awarded Righteous Among the Nations title (Yad Vashem Archives; Gutman, 2003)

Mother Marie Placide, Sisters of the Belgian Catholic Order, Auvillar, Department of Tarn et Garonne, France, awarded Righteous Among the Nations title July 15, 1981 (Yad Vashem Archives; Gutman, 2003, p. 447)

Mother Jeanne-Françoise Ramade●, Mother Superior, Convent of Saint Joseph, Alban, near Albi, Department of the Tarn, France, awarded Righteous Among the Nations title December 25, 1995 (Yad Vashem Archives; Gutman, 2003, p. 458)

Sister Clotilde Régereau●, Mother Superior, Maison de Soeurs de la Carité, Paris, France, awarded Righteous Among the Nations title August 16, 1994 (Yad Vashem Archives; Gutman, 2003, pp. 460-461)

Sister Marie-Antoinette Ricard● (Elizabeth), Hospital, Tarbs (Department of Haute-Pyrenees), France, awarded Righteous Among the Nations title December 9, 1996 (Yad Vashem Archives; Gutman, 2003, p. 468)

Sister Elizabeth Rivet*● (Killed), Mother Superior, La Compassion Convent, Lyons, France, awarded Righteous Among the Nations title July 14, 1996 (Yad Vashem Archives; Gutman, 2003, pp. 471-472)

Sister Germaine Robaeys● (Céline), France, awarded Righteous Among the Nations title (Yad Vashem Archives; Gutman, 2003)

Philomène Rolland● (Sr. Marie Etienne), Allanche, France, awarded Righteous Among the Nations title (Yad Vashem Archives; Gutman, 2003)

Sister Marguerite Roques●, Notre Dame de Massip, Capendac, Southern France, awarded Righteous Among the Nations title (Yad Vashem Archives; Gutman, 2003)

Sister Rose● (Couvent des Clarisses), France, awarded Righteous Among the Nations title January 23, 1991 (Yad Vashem Archives; Gutman, 2003, pp. 281-282, 480)

Sister Madeline Royer● (Sister Inés), awarded Righteous Among the Nations title (Yad Vashem Archives; Gutman, 2003, p. 488)

Sister Elizabeth Skobtzoff● (Mother Marie), Orthodox Church of the Intercession of the Holy Virgin, Rue Lourmel, Paris, France, awarded Righteous Among the Nations title January 1985 (Yad Vashem Archives; Gutman, 2003,  pp. 504-505)

Mother Marie-Thérèse Roux●, Mother Superior, Covent near Toulon (Var), France, awarded Righteous Among the Nations title November 13, 1984 (Yad Vashem Archives; Gutman, 2003, p. 486)

Sister Louise Thèbe●, Director of Oeuvre Saint-Germaine, Toulouse (Verdine), and Notre Dame de Massip, Capendac, France, awarded Righteous Among the Nations title (Yad Vashem Archives; Gutman, 2003)

Sister Marie (St. Jean) Uthrrigge●, France, awarded Righteous Among the Nations title (Yad Vashem Archives; Gutman, 2003)

Sister Lucie Thérèse●, Mother Superior of Saint François of Sales in Voiron (Isère), France, awarded Righteous Among the Nations title January 11, 1998 (Yad Vashem Archives; Gutman, 2003, p. 520)

Sister Germaine Veyrine●, La Providence Convent, Le Coteau, near Roanne (Department of Loire), awarded Righteous Among the Nations title February 14, 1996 (Yad Vashem Archives; Gutman, 2003, p. 520)

Sister Marie-Alice Vidal●, Pierrefort (Canal), France, awarded Righteous Among the Nations title January 27, 1993 (Yad Vashem Archives; Gutman, 2003, p. 542)

Sister Marie-Jean Viollet●, France, awarded Righteous Among the Nations title (Yad Vashem Archives; Gutman, 2003)

Sister Viviane●, awarded Righteous Among the Nations title, see Sister Annette Matter (Yad Vashem Archives; Gutman, 2003, pp. 385-386)

Sister Marguerite (Théophilis) Waffelaert●, France, awarded Righteous Among the Nations title (Yad Vashem Archives; Gutman, 2003)

Sister Clara Walsh● (Sister Agnes), St. Vincent de Paul Convent, Cadouin, Dordogne, France, awarded Righteous Among the Nations title March 1, 1990 (Yad Vashem Archives; Gutman, 2003, pp. 281-281), see Sister Granier

Mother Magda Zech●, Mother Superior of Convent of Notre Dame de Sion, Grenoble, France, awarded Righteous Among the Nations title July 16, 1990 (Yad Vashem Archives; Gutman, 2003, p. 552)

Sister Jeanne-Francois-Zuffery●, Villefranche de Rouergue Convent, Department of Aveyon, Rue Hospice for the Elderly, France, awarded Righteous Among the Nations title February 24, 1993 (Yad Vashem Archives; Gutman, 2003, pp. 552-553)

Individuals (laypersons who worked with clergy and church groups) - France

Germaine Ribière● (Catholic layperson), awarded Righteous Among the Nations title (Yad Vashem Archives; Gutman, 2003, p. 467)

Marie Banc (Marie des Anges)

Jeanne Baragades (Marie-Paule)

Robert Bengel

Marguerite Beyles (Henrica)

Adeline Brachet, Catholic counselor, Catholic Institution Montaban (Tarn-et-Garrone) , awarded Righteous Among the Nations title January 3, 1992 (Yad Vashem Archives; Gutman, 2003, p. 107)

Maurice Coffy

Marthe Delesalle (Annette)

Philemone Dumoulin

Jean Espitallier

Marcel Genestier

Antoine Girardin

Andréa Guigues (Marie-Gabrielle)

Emilie Kamper (Placide)

Roger Ledain

Pierrette Marquet (Perpetue)

Marie-Angélique Murat

Marguerite Pasquine

Gabriel Piguet

Jeanne Dominique Pinet

Jeanne Rodien

Josette Tafani (Marie-Pascale)

Marie Uthurriage (St. Jean)

Mareguerite Waffelaert (Théophilius)

Germany

Caritas (Catholic Charities), Germany

Dr. Gertrude Luckner

Office for Religious War Relief, Caritas Association (Catholic), Freiburg, Germany, established 1939 (Gutman, 2007, pp. 121-122)

Smuggled German Jews to Switzerland.  Worked with Rabbi Leo Baeck of the Reich Union of the Jews in Germany.  Luckner was caught, arrested and deported to the Ravensbrück concentration camp in Germany.  She survived and was liberated on May 3, 1945.

Archbishop Contrad Gröber

Gertrud Luckner●+ (b. 1900), leader, awarded Righteous Among the Nations title (Yad Vashem Archives)

Paulsbund, Breslau (Dominican Order)

Relief Agency of the Berlin Chancery (Hilfswerk beim Bischoeflichen Ordinariat Berlin)

Individuals:

Cardinal Count von Preysing, Berlin

Father George Althus

Father Aurelius Arkenau●, Dominical Chapel, Leipzig Wahren, Germany

Father Wilhelm Berning

Father Alfred Delp (1907-1945) , Munich

Father Joseph Hoeffner●, Kiel, Germany

Father Bernhard Lichtenberg●* (Killed), St. Hedwig Cathedral, Berlin, Germany

Father Heinrich Middendorf● (b. 1898), Order of Priest of The Heart of Jesus, Stegen Monestary, Freiberg in Breisgau, Germany; hid and sheltered Jews in monastaries, awarded Righteous Among the Nations title September 11, 1994 (Yad Vashem Archives)

Sister Cläre Barwitzky●, Chamonix (capital of Départment of Savoir), France, saved 30 Jewish children in France, awarded Righteous Among the Nations title March 20, 1991 (Yad Vashem Archives)

Brother Albrecht Kopschina, Assumption Paris, Hoppenwalde

Father August Ruf*● (Killed), Sigen, Germany

Brother Johannes Seidel, Vicar, Holy Cross Church, Frankfurt

Father Eugen Weiler●, Weich, Germany

Brother Kurt Willig, pastor, St. Konrad Church, Berlin

Greece

Sisters of Charity of St. Vincent de Paul in Calamaria, Greece

Mother Superior Rochette

Sister Joseph

Father Irénée Typaldos● (Greek Catholic), from Patras, Greece; attached to Spanish Embassy in Athens

Monsignor Angello Guiseppi Roncalli (Papal Nuncio)

Hungary

(Braham, 1981, 1991; Gurman, 1990, 2007)

The Beatific Katalin Institute, Budapest, Hungary, residence and school for girls.  Father Klinda opened a factory for manufacturing Hungarian Army uniforms.  He hid Budapest Jews in the factory during German occupation and Arrow Cross rule of the city.  The factory was considred “essential” for the Hungarian war effort.  In addition, the operation was under the protection of the Vatican Nuncio Angelo Rotta.  (Yad Vashem Archives; Gutman, 2007, p. 256)

Father Pál Klinda●, manager, director, awarded Righteous Among the Nations title June 20, 1995 (Yad Vashem Archives; Gutman, 2007, p. 256)

Gitta Halász, building manager

Benedictine Order, Hungary

Carmelite Sisters, Collegium Theresianum, Hungary (Gutman, 2007)

College of St. Anne, Champagnat Institute, Hungary (Gutman, 2007)

Collegium Marianum, Hungary (Gutman, 2007)

Chapagnat Monastary, French Boarding School, #5 Höghes Endre Street, Budapest, Hungary (Yad Vashem Archives; Gutman, 2007, p. 302)

Ferdinand Fischer● (Brother Victor), awarded Righteous Among the Nations title (Yad Vashem Archives; Gutman, 2007, p. 302)

Sándor Hegdüs● (Brother Felicien), awarded Righteous Among the Nations title (Yad Vashem Archives; Gutman, 2007, p. 302)

Brother Louis Pruczer● (Brother Gabriel), monk, Marist Order, awarded Righteous Among the Nations title (Yad Vashem Archives; Gutman, 2007, p. 302)

Ferenc (François) Angyal● (Brother Sandór), awarded Righteous Among the Nations title (Yad Vashem Archives; Gutman, 2007, p. 302)

Lászlo Pingilzer● (Brother Istvan), awarded Righteous Among the Nations title (Yad Vashem Archives; Gutman, 2007, p. 302)

Franciscan Missionary Sisters, Budapest, Hungary (Gutman, 2007)

Holy Cross Society, established fall 1939 (founded Association of the Christian Jews of Hungary)

Baron Moric Kornfeld, founder

Count Cyula Zichy

Bishop of Kalocsa

Dr. Jozsef Cavallier, secretary general (Braham, 1991, p. 1187)

Professor József Jánossy

Bishop Endre Hamvas, Bishop of Csandad

Bishop Vilmos Apor, Bishop of Gyor (Braham, 1981, pp. 1178-1179, 1190-1191)

Bishop Zichy

Mrs. Bélla Rónai

Dr. Margit Kormos

Monsignor Angelo Rotta● (Vatican nuncio)

Jesuit College, Budapest, Hungary (Yad Vashem Archives; Gutman, 2007)

Father Jacob Raile●, awarded Righteous Among the Nations title (Yad Vashem Archives; Gutman, 2007)

Jesuit Joseph Zrinyi

Julianna Religious Boarding School, Budapest, Hungary (Yad Vashem Archives; Gutman, 2007)

Pastor Imre Szabo●, Head, awarded Righteous Among the Nations title (Yad Vashem Archives; Gutman, 2007)

Lazarist Fathers (Lazarista Atyák), Budapest, Hungary (Yad Vashem Archives; Gutman, 2007)

Father Ferenc Köhler●, volunteer, Nuncio’s Office, Budapest, Hungary, awarded Righteous Among the Nations title (Yad Vashem Archives; Braham, 1991; Gutman, 2007)

Marist Order, Hungary (Yad Vashem Archives; Gutman, 2007)

Brother Louis Pruczer●, Head, awarded Righteous Among the Nations title (Yad Vashem Archives; Gutman, 2007)

Brother Francois Angyal●, awarded Righteous Among the Nations title (Yad Vashem Archives; Gutman, 2007)

Brother Jean-Baptiste Bonetbeltz●, awarded Righteous Among the Nations title (Yad Vashem Archives; Gutman, 2007)

Brother Bernard Clerc●, awarded Righteous Among the Nations title (Yad Vashem Archives; Gutman, 2007)

Brother Ferdinand Fischer●, awarded Righteous Among the Nations title (Yad Vashem Archives; Gutman, 2007)

Brother Alexander Hegedüs (Frère Joseph)●, Champagnat Monastery, Budapest, Hungary, awarded Righteous Among the Nations title (Yad Vashem Archives; Gutman, 2007)

Brother Albert Pfleger●, Champagnat Monastery, Budapest, Hungary (worked with Valdemar and Nina Langlet, Swedish Red Cross), awarded Righteous Among the Nations title (Yad Vashem Archives; Gutman, 2007)

Brother Ladislas Pingkzer● (Brother Etienne), awarded Righteous Among the Nations title (Yad Vashem Archives; Gutman, 2007)

Order of the Society of the Holy Virgin, 60 Andrassy St., Budapest, Hungary (Yad Vashem Archives; Gutman, 2007)

Sister Zsuzsanna Ván●, Convent Director, his and sheltered 35 Jewish children and 18 adults in her Convent, which ironically was near the Arrow Cross Headquarters in Budapest, awarded Righteous Among the Nations title February 27, 1991 (Yad Vashem Archives; Gutman, 2007, p. 339)

St. Elizabeth Convent of Sacré Coeur, Budapest, Hungary

Salesian Order of St. John Bosco, Budapest, Esztergom, Óbuda, Rákospalota (Ujpest), Hungary (Yad Vashem Archives; Gutman, 2007)

László Adam●, Budapest, Hungary, awarded Righteous Among the Nations title 1999 (Yad Vashem Archives; Gutman, 2007, pp. 178-179)

Father József (Janos) Antál●+, leader, awarded Righteous Among the Nations title 1989

In charge of civilian refugees for the Hungarian Ministry of the Interior, 1939-1944.  Worked with Citizen’s Committee for Refugee Affairs, representing the Polish Government-in-Exile.  Worked with Hungarian resistance underground.  Antal was arrested in 1944.  (Yad Vashem Archives; Braham, 1991; Gutman, 2007, pp. 176-177)

Other priests of the Salesian Order

Father Adám Lászlo

Istvan Anhalt (Jewish volunteer)

Sisters of the Divine Savior (Order of Divine Love), Convent, Budapest, Hungary (Yad Vashem Archives; Gutman, 2007)

Sister Etelka Kuntich● (Tarsia), awarded Righteous Among the Nations title April 21, 1998 (Yad Vashem Archives; Gutman, 2007, pp. 268-269)

Sisters of Mercy (Iraglmus Növérek), Budapest, Hungary

Sisters (Society) of Social Service (“Gray Nuns”), Budapest, Hungary (Yad Vashem Archives; Braham, 1991; Gutman, 2007)

Sister Dr. Margit Slachta● (d. 1974), head, awarded Righteous Among the Nations title February 19, 1969 (Yad Vashem Archives; Gutman, 2007, pp. 314-315)

Sister Sára Sálkahazi●*, director, Home for Working Catholic Women, Borkréta St., Budapest, Hungary, murdered by Arrow Cross, awarded Righteous Among the Nations title February 18, 1969 (Yad Vashem Archives; Gutman, 2007, p. 309)

Sister Vilma Bernouts●*, teacher, killed by Arrow Cross, awarded Righteous Among the Nations title (Yad Vashem Archives; Gutman, 2007)

Sister Roza-Katalin Peitl●, awarded Righteous Among the Nations title (Yad Vashem Archives; Gutman, 2007)

Society of the Holy Virgin (Szüz Maria Társásaga), Budapest, Hungary

Mother Superior Zsuzsanna Van●

Society of Sacré Coeur, Budapest, Hungary

Mother Superior Hildegard Gutzwiller●

The Sophianum Institute (Sophianum Intézet)

Vatican Nunciatura (diplomatic office), see also Catholic Church (by country), Vatican

Monsignor Angelo Rotta●, head, awarded Righteous Among the Nations title (Yad Vashem Archives; Gutman, 2007)

Father Gennaro Verolino●, 1st Secretary, awarded Righteous Among the Nations title (Yad Vashem Archives; Gutman, 2007)

György Adam (Jewish), “Third Secretary”

Father Ferenc Kohler●, awarded Righteous Among the Nations title (Yad Vashem Archives; Braham, 1991, pp. 1193, 1203n63; Gutman, 2007)

Tibor Baransky●, Seminary student, volunteer, awarded Righteous Among the Nations title 1978 (Yad Vashem Archives; Gutman, 2007, pp. 181-182)

Margit Sterneder, volunteer (Gutman, 2007, p. 181)

Alexander (Sándor) Újváry●, International Committee of the Red Cross, volunteer, awarded Righteous Among the Nations title June 3, 1982 (Yad Vashem Archives; Gutman, 2007, p. 334)

Individuals (Clergy) - Hungary

Cardinal Seredi, head, Catholic Church, Hungary

Cardinal Joseph Mindszenty (1892-1965) , Bishop of Vezprem, Hungary

Bishop Vilmos Apor, Bishop of Györ, Hungary (Braham, 1991, pp. 1178-1179, 1190-1191)

Bishop Csandáo, Hungary

Bishop Gyula Czapik, Bishop of Eger, Hungary (Braham, 1991, p. 1190)

Bishop Jozsef Grösz, Bishop of Kolocsa, Hungary (Braham, 1991, p. 1190)

Bishop Endre Hamvas, Hungary (Braham, 1991, pp. 1190-1191)

Bishop Áron Marton●, Archdiocese in Transylvania, Kolozsvar-Cluj, Hungary, awarded Righteous Among the Nations title December 27, 1999 (Yad Vashem Archives; Braham, 1991, pp. 1191-1192; Gutman, 2007, pp. 277-278)

Bishop Dr. Lazlo Ravasz, Hungary

Bishop Sándor Kovács, Bishop of Szombathely, Hungary (Braham, 1991, p. 1190)

Bishop Kapi (Braham, 1991, pp. 1188-1189)

Bishop Lajos Savoy, Hungary (Braham, 1991, p. 1190)

Bishop Székesfhérvár, Hungary (Braham, 1991, p. 1190)

Bishop Virág, Bishop of Pécs, Hungary (Braham, 1991, p. 1190)

Father Lázló Ádam●, monk, Salesian Order of St. John, Budapest, Hungary, awarded Righteous Among the Nations title (Yad Vashem Archives; Gutman, 2007)

Brother Francois Angayl●, Marist Order, awarded Righteous Among the Nations title (Yad Vashem Archives; Gutman, 2007)

Father Janos Antal●, Salesian Order, awarded Righteous Among the Nations title (Yad Vashem Archives; Gutman, 2007)

Monsignor Angelo Rotta● (Vatican nuncio), Budapest, Hungary, awarded Righteous Among the Nations title (Yad Vashem Archives; Gutman, 2007)

Monsignor Béla Varga (Braham, 1991, pp. 1193, 1203n63)

Father Dezso Angyal (Braham, 1991, pp. 1193, 1203n64)

Tibor Baranski●, Seminary Student, Vatican Nunciatura, Budapest, Hungary, awarded Righteous Among the Nations title (Yad Vashem Archives; Gutman, 2007)

Brother Jean-Baptist Bonetbeltz●, Marist Order, awarded Righteous Among the Nations title (Yad Vashem Archives; Gutman, 2007)

Father Pawel Boharczyk (Slovakian), Vac, Hungary

Brother Bernard Clerc●, Marist Order, awarded Righteous Among the Nations title (Yad Vashem Archives; Gutman, 2007)

Father András Egyed (Braham, 1991, pp. 1193, 1203n64)

Brother Ferdinand Fischer●, awarded Righteous Among the Nations title (Yad Vashem Archives; Gutman, 2007)

Brother Alexandre (Joseph) Hegedüs●, Marist Order, awarded Righteous Among the Nations title (Yad Vashem Archives; Gutman, 2007)

Father Géza Izay (Braham, 1991, pp. 1193, 1203n64)

Father Ferenc Kálló* (Killed), Army Chaplain, Budapest Military Hospital, Hungary; helped save Jews and others in Army Hospital No. 11 in Buda; distributed forged documents and IDs; Kallo was murdered by the Hungarian Arrow Cross (Yad Vashem Archives; Braham, 1991, pp. 1193, 1203n64; Gutman, 2007, pp. 258-259)

Father Pal Klinda●* (killed), managed the Beatific Katalin Institute, Budapest, Hungary, awarded Righteous Among the Nations title June 20, 1994 (Yad Vashem Archives; Gutman, 2007, p. 256)

Father Ferenc Köhler●, Lazarist Order, awarded Righteous Among the Nations title (Yad Vashem Archives; Braham, 1991, pp. 1193, 1203n64; Gutman, 2007)

Father (Abbot) Keleman Krizosztom●, Pannonhalma Monastery (Western Hungary), awarded Righteous Among the Nations title June 22, 1998 (Yad Vashem Archives; Gutman, 2007, pp. 249-250)

Father Aron Marton●, awarded Righteous Among the Nations title (Yad Vashem Archives; Gutman, 2007)

Father Gilbert Nagymanyoki●, Budapest, Hungary, awarded Righteous Among the Nations title (Yad Vashem Archives; Gutman, 2007, p. 302)

Father Albert Pfleger●, Marist Order, awarded Righteous Among the Nations title February 26, 1981 (Yad Vashem Archives; Gutman, 2007, p. 302)

Brother Ladislas (Etiene) Pingiczer● (Brother István), Marist Order, awarded Righteous Among the Nations title February 26, 1981 (Yad Vashem Archives; Gutman, 2007, p. 302)

Brother Louis (Lajos) Pruczer● (Brother Gabriel), Marist Order, awarded Righteous Among the Nations title February 26, 1981 (Yad Vashem Archives; Gutman, 2007, p. 302)

Father Jacob Raile● (d. 1949), Jesuit College, monastery, 52 Maria Street, Budapest, Hungary, Swedish Red Cross, awarded Righteous Among the Nations title September 27, 1991 (Yad Vashem Archives; Braham, 1991, pp. 1193, 1203n64; Gutman, 2007, pp. 303-304)

Father László Remente (Braham, 1991, pp. 1193, 1203n64)

Father János Tomori●, awarded Righteous Among the Nations title August 10, 1999 (Yad Vashem Archives; Gutman, 2007, pp. 329-330)

Father Gennaro Verolino●, Vatican Nunciatura, Budapest Hungary

Sister Vilma Bernouitz●* (Killed), Sisters of Social Service, Budapestm Hungary

Sister Hildegard Gutzwiller

Sister Margit Juhász●, awarded Righteous Among the Nations title April 14, 1985 (Yad Vashem Archives; Gutman, 2007, pp. 245-246)

Sister Etelka (Tarsita) Kuntich●, Convent, The Daughter of Divine Love, Buda, awarded Righteous Among the Nations title April 21, 1991 (Yad Vashem Archives; Gutman, 2007, p. 268)

Sister Roza-Katalin Peitl●, Sisters of Social Service, Budapest, Hungary

Sister Sara Salkahazi●*, Sisters of Social Service, Budapest, Hungary, awarded Righteous Among the Nations title February 18, 1969 (Yad Vashem Archives; Gutman, 2007, p. 309)

Sister Margit Slachta●, Head, Sisters of Social Service, Budapest, Hungary, awarded Righteous Among the Nations title February 19, 1969 (Yad Vashem Archives; Gutman, 2007, pp. 314-315)

Sister Zsuzsanna Ván ●, Convent, Order of the Society of the Holy Cross, Budapest, Hungary, hid 35 Jewish children and 18 adults in her convent, awarded Righteous Among the Nations title February 27, 1991 (Yad Vashem Archives; Gutman, 2007, p. 339)

Italy

170 Catholic priests were killed for aiding Jewish escape the Nazis; 100 convents and 55 Catholic monasteries, schools, hospitals, churches hid Jews in Rome area, helping 4,339 Jews; 21 convents, monasteries, parish churches and schools aided Jews in Florence area. (Gutman, 2007; Zuccotti, 1987, pp. 208-209; Zuccotti, 2000; Vaccari, 1968)

Assisi Underground Rescue Network, Assisi, Italy, established September 1943, 26 monasteries (Yad Vashem Archives; Gutman, 1990; Gutman, 2007, pp. 358, 391-392; Ramati, Alexander. The Assisi Underground: The Priests who Rescued Jews. (New York: Stein and Day, 1978); Santucci, Francesco. Assisi 1943-1944: Documenti per una Storia. (Accademia Proper-Ziana del Subasio, 1994); Vaccari, 1968; Zuccotti, 2000, pp. 259-264, 308, 386n46)

Monsignor Minestrini

Monsignor Giuseppi Placido Nicolini●, Bishop of Assisi, Committee of Assistance, Perugia, Italy, head Assisi Underground Rescue Network, head of Committee of Assistance, awarded Righteous Among the Nations title December 6, 1977 (Yad Vashem Archives; Gutman, 2007, pp. 358, 391-392; Ramati, 1978; Santucci, 1994; Zuccotti, 2000, pp. 259-264)

Father Don Rufino Niccaci● (1911-1976), Convent of San Damiano, Italy, hid 100 Jews in Monasteries around Assisi, Assisi Underground Rescue Network, Italy, awarded Righteous Among the Nations title April 17, 1974 (Yad Vashem Archives; Gutman, 2007, pp. 358, 391-392; Ramati, 1978; Santucci, 1994; Zuccotti, 2000, pp. 259-265)

Father Don Aldo Brunacci●+, head of the Committee of Assistance, San Rufino Cathedral, Assisi, Italy, awarded Righteous Among the Nations title December 6, 1977 (Yad Vashem Archives; Gutman, 2007, pp. 358, 391; Ramati, 1978; Santucci, 1994; Zuccotti, 2000, pp. 259-264)

Father Michel Todde (Santucci, 1994; Zuccotti, 2000, p. 261)

Father Federico Vincenti● (1885-1955), head of Parochial House of the Church of Sant Andrea in Porta Santa Susanna, Perugia, Italy, save 32 Jews, awarded Righteous Among the Nations title July 16, 1997 (Yad Vashem Archives; Gutman, 2007, pp. 412-413; Ramati, 1978; Santucci, 1994)

The Assisi Rescue Network worked with the following churches:

Basilica of Saint Francis, Saint Quirico, Assisi, Italy (Gutman, 2007; Santucci, 1994; Zuccotti, 2000, p. 262)

Church of Saint Francis of Assisi, Italy (Gutman, 2007; Santucci, 1994)

Convent della Suore Francescane de Maria, Piazza del Carmine, Florence, Italy (Gutman, 2007; Santucci, 1994)

Convent of the German Sisters, Florence, Italy (Gutman, 2007; Santucci, 1994)

Convent of the Stigmatic Nuns (Stigmata), Assisi, Florence, Italy, hid, sheltered and protected Jews during the German occupation of Assisi, worked in Assisi Rescue Network with Father Rufino Nicacci (Gutman, 2007, p. 391; Santucci, 1994)

Jewish Christian Aid Committee (Gutman, 2007; Zuccotti, 2000)

Laboratorio Saint Francisco Assisi, Italy

Seminario Minore, Florence, Italy, assembly center to place Jews in hiding in Florence (Zuccotti, 2000, pp. 254, 384n19)

Suore Serve de Maria Addoloratto, Via Faentina; hid, sheltered and protected twelve Jewish girls, supported by DELASEM funds (AAF, Fondo dalla Costa, b 8, dec. 117; Zuccotti, 2000, pp. 254, 384n18)

Basilica di San Paolo fuori le Mura (“St. Paul Outside the Walls”), Vatican Property

Basilica of Saint Francis, Saint Quirico, Assisi, Italy (Gutman, 2007)

Benedictine Convent, Ronco de Ghiffa, Novara District, Italy (Yad Vashem Archives; Gutman, 2007)

Sister Maria Giuseppina (Barbara Lavizzari)●, awarded Righteous Among the Nations title (Yad Vashem Archives; Gutman, 2007)

Brusasca Rescue and Resistance Network, Monteratto Region, Italy(Gutman, 2007, pp. lxxxiii, 359)

Giuseppe Brusasca●, awarded Righteous Among the Nations title July 8, 1969 (Yad Vashem Archives; Gutman, 2007, p. 359)

Father Ernesto Torra (Gutman, 2007, p. 359)

Father Don Giovanni Sisto, parish priest Isolengo (Alessandria) Village (Gutman, 2007, p. 359)

Capuchin Home for the Elderly Poor, near Borgo San Lorenzo (near Florence), Italy

Capuchin Monastery (College), Via Sicilia, Rome, Italy, see also DELASEM, Italy and France

DELASEM hid, sheltered and protected more than 4,000 Jew during the German occupation of Italy.  2,500 were Italian Jews and 1,500 were foreign Jewish refugees.  The rescue cost 25 million lire.  Much of themoney came from the American Jewish Joint Distrution Committee (JDC).

 (Yad Vashem Archives; JDC Archives, NYC, USA; CDEC, Milan, 9/3; Cavaglion, 1981; De Felice, 1972, 1988; Gutman, 2007, pp. 353, 367; Leboucher, 1969; Michaelis, 1978, pp. 356, 364, 371, 388; Poliakov& Sabille, 1955; Rayski, 2005; Sarfatti, 2006, p. 209; Sorani, 1983; Vaccari, 1968, chapter 5; Waagenaar 1974; Zuccotti, 2000, pp. 144-147, 149, 178, 181-187, 197, 234-237, 245, 249-250, 256, 304, 307-308, 380n16, 385n30)

Father Marie-Benoit● (“Padre Benedetto”; 1895-1990), DELASEM, Rome, S. France, awarded Righteous Among the Nations title April 26, 1966

(Yad Vashem Archives; JDC Archives, NYC, USA; CDEC, Milan; Bauer, 1981; Bennedetto, 1948; Carpi, 1994, pp. 139-140, 174-176, 178-179, 190, 281n.52, 294nn.6, 7, 301n.26, 303n.39; Cavaglion, 1981; De Felice, 1961, 1988; Gutman, 1990, 2007, pp. 353, 367; Leboucher, 1969; Michaelis, 1978, pp. 356, 364, 371, 388; Poliakov& Sabille, 1955; Rayski, 2005; Sarfatti, 2006, p. 209; Sorani, 1983; Vaccari, 1968; Waagenaar 1974; Zuccotti, 2000, pp. 144-147, 149, 178, 181-187, 197, 234-237, 245, 249-250, 256, 304, 307-308, 380n16, 385n30)

Benoit worked with:

Cardinal (Archbishop) Pietro Boetto●, Genoa, Italy, encouraged and instructed local priests to help local Jews, awarded Righteous Among the Nations title

(JDC Archives, NYC, USA; CDEC, Milan; Bauer, 1981; Bennedetto, 1948; Carpi, 1994, pp. 139-140, 174-176, 178-179, 190, 281n.52, 294nn.6, 7, 301n.26, 303n.39; Cavaglion, 1981; De Felice, 1961, 1988; Gutman, 1990, 2007, pp. 353, 367, 400; Leboucher, 1969; Michaelis, 1978, pp. 356, 364, 371, 388; Poliakov& Sabille, 1955; Rayski, 2005; Sarfatti, 2006, p. 209; Sorani, 1983; Vaccari, 1968; Waagenaar 1974; Zuccotti, 2000, pp. 77, 144-147, 149, 178, 181-187, 197, 234-237, 244, 245, 249-250, 256, 269, 275, 304, 307-308, 371n29, 380n16, 385n30)

Angelo Donati (Jewish; Benedetto, 1948; Gutman, 2007, p. 353; Le Boucher, 1969; Vaccari, 1968, chapter 5; Zuccotti, 2000)

Settimio Sorani (Jewish; Benedetto, 1948;  Gutman, 2007, p. 353; Le Boucher, 1969; Sorani, 1983; Vaccari, 1968, chapter 5; Zuccotti, 2000)

Cardinal Elia Dalla Costa, Archbishop of Genoa (Gutman, 2007, p. 353; Zuccotti, 2000, pp. 252-256, 275)

Aron Kasterztein (Jewish; Benedetto, 1948; Gutman, 2007; Le Boucher, 1969; Sorani, 1983; Zuccotti, 2000)

Don Frnacisco Repetto, Genoa, Italy (Benedetto, 1948; Gutman, 2007; Le Boucher, 1969; Vaccari, 1968, chapter 5; Zuccotti, 1987, 2000)

Father Cipriano Ricotti●, awarded Righteous Among the Nations title October 26, 1982 (Yad Vashem Archives; Gutman, 2007, pp. 353, 367, 401-402; Vaccari, 1968, chapter 5; Zoccotti, 2000,pp. 252-253)

Stefan Schwamm (Jewish; Benedetto, 2948; De Felice, 1988; Gutman, 2007; Le Boucher, 1969; Sorani, 1983; Zuccotti, 2000)

Carissimi Monastery, Carissimi, Italy

Catholic Action, aided Jews (Zuccotti, 2000, pp. 246, 382n44)

Certosa Monastery, monks at this monastery were murdered by SS troops for hiding arms; they worked with Giorgio Nissim of DELASEM to hide 20 Jews (CDEC, b. 8-A-I, Nissim testimony; Zuccotti, 2000, p. 258)

Church of San Andrea, Porta Santa Susanna, Purugia, Italy, hid, sheltered and provided for 32 Jews during the German occupation, part of Assisi Underground Rescue Network (Gutman, 2007, pp. 412-413)

Archbishop of Perugia Mario Vianello

Father Federico Vincenti● (1885-1955), awarded Righteous Among the Nations title July 16, 1997 (Yad Vashem Archives; Gutman, 2007, pp. 412-413)

Church of Saint Francis of Assisi, Italy

Church of San Gioacchino (Yad Vashem Archives; Gutman, 2007)

Father Antonio Dressino●; worked with Pietro Lestini●, Sasg, Sezione Aerea di San Gioacchino, Italy, awarded Righteous Among the Nations title July 31, 1995 (Yad Vashem Archives; Gutman, 2007, p. 386)

Church of Santa Eurosia, Order of San Filippo Neri Garbaella Quarter, Rome, Italy, hid Jews in church during German occupation of Rome, 1943-1944 (Yad Vashem Archives; Gutman, 2007, p. 372)

Father Alfredo Melani● (b. 1911), awarded Righteous Among the Nations title September 2, 1999 (Yad Vashem Archives; Gutman, 2007, p. 372)

Father Alessandro Daeli● (b. 1895), awarded Righteous Among the Nations title September 2, 1999 (Yad Vashem Archives; Gutman, 2007, p. 372)

Collegio Civico, Saluzzo (Cuneo Province), Italy, hid Jews (Gutman, 2007, p. 399)

Father Francesco Raspino● (b. 1885), rector, awarded Righteous Among the Nations title May 22, 1983 (Yad Vashem Archives; Gutman, 2007, p. 399)

Father Pasquale Amerio● (b. 1915), assistant to Father Raspino, awarded Righteous Among the Nations title May 22, 1983 (Yad Vashem Archives; Gutman, 2007, p. 399)

Concretto del Montello Retirement Home (Yad Vashem Archives; Gutman, 2007, pp. 272-273)

Father Angelo Della Torre●, Italy, awarded Righteous Among the Nations title December 14, 1965 (Yad Vashem Archives; Gutman, 2007, pp. 372-373)

Convent Calamari, Salonika, Greece (Gutman, 2007, p. 370)

Mother Joseph, saved Jewish baby (Gutman, 2007, . 370)

Convent della Calza, Italy

Convent della Suore Francescane di Maria (Franciscan Sisters of Mary), in Piazza Carmine, Florence, Italy; working with the Jewish-Christian Aid Committee, hid, sheltered and cared for refugee Jews in their convent in Florence, Italy during German occupation (CDEC, Milan, 5-H-b[10] F.R., SF; Gutman, 2007, pp. 393-394; Zuccotti, 1987, p. 159)

Leonilda Pancani● (layperson), awarded Righteous Among the Nations title February 11, 1999 (Yad Vashem Archives; Gutman, 2007, pp. 393-394)

Convent of the Gesu, Rome, Italy

Convent St. Guiseppe (di Chambery), Casaletto (near Rome), Italy, hid, sheltered, fed and protected 30 Jewish grils during the German occupation of Rome (Yad Vashem Archives; Gutman, 2007, pp. 356-357)

Mother Superior, Sister Emerenza (Anna Bolledi●), awarded Righteous Among the Nations title August 4, 1997 (Yad Vashem Archives; Gutman, 2007, pp. 356-357)

Sister Ferdinanda (Maria Corsetti●), awarded Righteous Among the Nations title August 4, 1997 (Yad Vashem Archives; Gutman, 2007, pp. 356-357)

Convent of San Damiano (Yad Vashem Archives; Gutman, 2007, pp. 391-392)

Father Don Rufino Niccaci● (1911-1976), Convent of San Damiano, Italy, hid 100 Jews in Monasteries around Assisi, Assisi Underground Rescue Network, Italy, awarded Righteous Among the Nations title April 17, 1974 (Yad Vashem Archives; Gutman, 2007, pp. 358, 391-392; Ramati, 1978; Santucci, 1994; Zuccotti, 2000, pp. 259-265)

Convent of San Vincenzo

Sister Marguerite Bernes

Pietro Lestini (layperson)

Convent of Santa Rufina

Convent and Seminary of the Sacred Heart
, Citta di Castello, Perugia, Italy (Yad Vashem Archives; Gutman, 2007, p. 406)

Father Benjiamino Schivo● (b. 1910), Rector, awarded Righteous Among the Nations title June 8, 1986 (Yad Vashem Archives; Gutman, 2007, p. 406)

Convent of the Sisters of Saint Joseph, Florence, Italy, hid Jewish women (MAYDA [1], 136; Zuccotti, 1987, p. 154)

Convent of the Stigmatic Nuns (Stigmata), Assisi, Florence, Italy, hid, sheltered and protected Jews during the German occupation of Assisi, worked in Assisi Rescue Network with Father Rufino Nicacci (Gutman, 2007, p. 391; Santucci, 1994)

DELASEM (Aid Commission for Jewish Refugees; Delegazione Assistenza Emigranti; Delegation for the Assistance of Immigrants), Southern France, Rome, Italy, and Yugoslavia, established December 1939 under Unione delle Communitá Israelitche, see also Father Repetto Rescue Network and Jewish-Christian Aid Committee, Florence, Italy

DELASEM was an umbrella of several Jewish organizations both in France and in Italy.  It was founded in 1933.  In November 1939, DELASEM began operating as a relief and rescue organization.  It was headed by Vittorio Valobra and its secretary was Raffaele Cantoni.  It became a secret organization which, during the war years, operated in Italy, Yugoslavia and Southern France.  DELASEM also supported beleaguered Jews in these occupied areas.

During the war, it helped save thousands of Jews all over Europe.  In France and Italy, DELASEM was headed by Father Marie-Benoit●, a Capuchin monk.

DELASEM provided forged identity papers and ration cards.  More than 10,000 Jewish refugees were supported by DELASEM with money from the American Jewish Joint.  Prominent Jewish leaders of DELASEM included Vittorio Valobra (President), Settimio Sorani (Secretary), Angelo Donati, Aaron Kasztersztein, Rabbi Riccardo Pacifici, Stefan Schwamm, Dante Almasi, Enric Luzzato, Massimo Teglio and Francesco Repetto.

(JDC Archives NYC, USA; Bauer, 1981; Bennedetto, 1948; Carpi, 1994; Cavaglion, 1981; Gutman, 2007, pp. 353, 367; Leboucher, 1969; Rayski, 2005; Sarfatti, 2006; Sorani, 1983; Vaccari, 1968; Zuccotti, 1987; Zuccotti, 2000)

Father Pierre Marie-Bénoit● (Benedetto), President, Delegazione Assistenze Emigranti Ebrei (Jewish Emigrant Association; DELASEM), 1942-1945

Father Marie-Bénoit, a Catholic Capuchin monk, was an organizer of one of the most successful rescues of Jews in the Holocaust.  He worked in Southern France and later throughout Italy.  He organized the rescue of thousands of Jews and other refugees from the Nazis.  He was President of the Delegazione Assistenze Emigranti Ebrei (Jewish Emigrant Association; DELASEM), a rescue and relief agency.  Bénoit worked with numerous diplomats from Switzerland, Romania, Hungary and Spain in helping Jews. Father Benedetto was known by his friends as the “Father of the Jews.”  Father Bénoit was declared Righteous Among the Nations in 1966. 

(Leboucher, Fernande. Translated by J. F. Bernard. Incredible Mission. (Garden City, NY: Doubleday, 1969).  Gutman, Yisrael (Ed.). Encyclopedia of the Holocaust, 4 vols. (New York: Macmillan, 1990), pp. 182-183. Gutman, 2007, p. 353.  Poliakov, Leon, and Jacques Sabille.  Jews under the Italian occupation. (Paris: Éditions du Centre, 1955). Carpi, Daniel. Between Mussolini and Hitler: The Jews and the Italian Authorities in France and Tunisia. (Hanover, NH: Brandeis University Press, 1994), pp. 139-140, 174-176, 178-179, 190, 281n.52, 294nn.6, 7, 301n.26, 303n.39. Michaelis, Meir. Mussolini and the Jews: German-Italian Relations and the Jewish Question in Italy, 1922-1945. (Oxford: Clarendon Press, 1978), pp. 356, 364, 371, 388. Morley, John. Vatican Diplomacy and the Jews during the Holocaust, 1939-1943. (New York: Ktav, 1980).  Sarfatti, 2006, p. 209; Zuccotti, 2000, pp. 144-147, 149, 178, 181-187, 197, 234, 236, 249-250, 256, 304, 307-308)

Lelio Vittorio Valobra (Jewish), Italy

Lelio Vittorio Valobra organized and administered the Delegazione Assistenze Emigranti Ebrei (Jewish Emigrant Association; Delasem) as president.  Valobra worked with Angelo Donati and Father Marie-Bénoit.

(JDC Archives, NYC, USA; CDEC, Milan; Bauer, 1981; Bennedetto, 1948; Carpi, 1994, pp. 139-140, 174-176, 178-179, 190, 281n.52, 294nn.6, 7, 301n.26, 303n.39; Cavaglion, 1981; De Felice, 1961, 1988; Gutman, 1990, 2007, pp. 353, 367; Leboucher, 1969; Michaelis, 1978, pp. 356, 364, 371, 388; Poliakov& Sabille, 1955; Rayski, 2005; Sarfatti, 2006, p. 209; Sorani, 1983; Vaccari, 1968; Waagenaar 1974; Zuccotti, 2000, pp. 144-147, 149, 178, 181-187, 197, 234-237, 245, 249-250, 256, 304, 307-308, 380n16, 385n30)

Dante Almansi, Italy, founder

(JDC Archives, NYC, USA; CDEC, Milan; Bauer, 1981; Bennedetto, 1948; Carpi, 1994, pp. 139-140, 174-176, 178-179, 190, 281n.52, 294nn.6, 7, 301n.26, 303n.39; Cavaglion, 1981; De Felice, 1961, 1988; Gutman, 1990, 2007, pp. 353, 367; Leboucher, 1969; Michaelis, 1978, pp. 356, 364, 371, 388; Poliakov& Sabille, 1955; Rayski, 2005; Sarfatti, 2006, p. 209; Sorani, 1983; Vaccari, 1968; Waagenaar 1974; Zuccotti, 2000, pp. 144-147, 149, 178, 181-187, 197, 234-237, 245, 249-250, 256, 304, 307-308, 380n16, 385n30)

Pastor Ammenti (Methodist), Italy

Eugenio Artom (Jewish), community leader, rescue activist, Florence (Zuccotti, 2000, pp. 254, 385n22, 23)

Monsignor Vincenzo Barale, Turin, Italy, secretary of Cardinal Maurillo Fossati

(Archivo della Curia di Torino (ACT), b.14.14.107.X, F. II Guerra: Ricerche Raccomandazioni, Assistenza, “Offert Pro Ebrei Profughi”; JDC Archives, NYC, USA; CDEC, Milan; Bauer, 1981; Bennedetto, 1948; Carpi, 1994, pp. 139-140, 174-176, 178-179, 190, 281n.52, 294nn.6, 7, 301n.26, 303n.39; Cavaglion, 1981; De Felice, 1961, 1988; Gutman, 1990, 2007, pp. 353, 367; Leboucher, 1969; Michaelis, 1978, pp. 356, 364, 371, 388; Poliakov& Sabille, 1955; Rayski, 2005; Sarfatti, 2006, p. 209; Sorani, 1983; Vaccari, 1968; Waagenaar 1974; Zuccotti, 2000, pp. 144-147, 149, 178, 181-187, 197, 234-237, 239-245, 249-250, 252-253, 256, 304, 307-308, 380n16, 381n9, 382n14, 385n30)

Monsignor Giuseppe Bicchierai, Milan, Italy, assistant to Cardinal Ildefonso Schuster of Milan; helped priests who were arrested for rescuing Jews; distributed DELASEM funds

(Archivo della Curia di Torino (ACT), b 14.14.107.VI, F. II; Zuccotti, 2000, pp. 242, 246-247, 380n10)

Cardinal (Archbishop) Pietro Boetto●, Genoa, Italy, encouraged and instructed local priests to help local Jews, awarded Righteous Among the Nations title

(JDC Archives, NYC, USA; CDEC, Milan; Bauer, 1981; Bennedetto, 1948; Carpi, 1994, pp. 139-140, 174-176, 178-179, 190, 281n.52, 294nn.6, 7, 301n.26, 303n.39; Cavaglion, 1981; De Felice, 1961, 1988; Gutman, 1990, 2007, pp. 353, 367, 400; Leboucher, 1969; Michaelis, 1978, pp. 356, 364, 371, 388; Poliakov& Sabille, 1955; Rayski, 2005; Sarfatti, 2006, p. 209; Sorani, 1983; Vaccari, 1968; Waagenaar 1974; Zuccotti, 2000, pp. 77, 144-147, 149, 178, 181-187, 197, 234-237, 244, 245, 249-250, 256, 269, 275, 304, 307-308, 371n29, 380n16, 385n30)

Eugenio Bolaffio, (Gorizia) Italy

(JDC Archives, NYC, USA; CDEC, Milan; Bauer, 1981; Bennedetto, 1948; Carpi, 1994, pp. 139-140, 174-176, 178-179, 190, 281n.52, 294nn.6, 7, 301n.26, 303n.39; Cavaglion, 1981; De Felice, 1961, 1988; Gutman, 1990, 2007, pp. 353, 367; Leboucher, 1969; Michaelis, 1978, pp. 356, 364, 371, 388; Poliakov& Sabille, 1955; Rayski, 2005; Sarfatti, 2006, p. 209; Sorani, 1983; Vaccari, 1968; Waagenaar 1974; Zuccotti, 2000, pp. 144-147, 149, 178, 181-187, 197, 234-237, 245, 249-250, 256, 304, 307-308, 380n16, 385n30)

Father Leto Casini●+ (b. 1902), parish priest, Varlungo, Florence, Italy, Jewish-Christian Aid Committee, awarded Righteous Among the Nations title December 14, 1965

(Casini, Leto, Ricordi di un Vecchio Prete: Florence, 1986, ISRT Casini Testimony; JDC Archives, NYC, USA; CDEC, Milan; Bauer, 1981; Bennedetto, 1948; Carpi, 1994, pp. 139-140, 174-176, 178-179, 190, 281n.52, 294nn.6, 7, 301n.26, 303n.39; Cavaglion, 1981; De Felice, 1961, 1988; Gutman, 1990, 2007, pp. 353, 367, 372, 401-402; Leboucher, 1969; Michaelis, 1978, pp. 356, 364, 371, 388; Poliakov& Sabille, 1955; Rayski, 2005; Sarfatti, 2006, p. 209; Sorani, 1983; Vaccari, 1968; Waagenaar 1974; Zuccotti, 2000, pp. 144-147, 149, 178, 181-187, 197, 234-237, 245, 249-250, 252-254, 256, 258, 304, 307-308, 322, 380n16, 384n8, 384n10, 385n30)

Matilde Cassin, worked with Father Ricotti to hide Jewish children

(JDC Archives, NYC, USA; CDEC, Milan; Bauer, 1981; Bennedetto, 1948; Carpi, 1994, pp. 139-140, 174-176, 178-179, 190, 281n.52, 294nn.6, 7, 301n.26, 303n.39; Cavaglion, 1981; De Felice, 1961, 1988; Gutman, 1990, 2007, pp. 353, 367; Leboucher, 1969; Michaelis, 1978, pp. 356, 364, 371, 388; Pandolfini, Ebrei a Firenze, pp. 36-37, cited in Zuccotti, 2000, pp. 253, 384n12; Poliakov& Sabille, 1955; Rayski, 2005; Sarfatti, 2006, p. 209; Sorani, 1983; Vaccari, 1968; Waagenaar 1974; Zuccotti, 2000, pp. 144-147, 149, 178, 181-187, 197, 234-237, 245, 249-250, 256, 304, 307-308, 380n16, 385n30)

Swiss Consul Chauvet, Rome, Italy

Mr. Chauvet, of the Swiss legation in Rome, issued Swiss protective letters to Jews and certified that they were French citizens.  Eventually, Chauvet expanded his protection to falsely certify that all refugees were French.  Chauvet distributed false documents to hundreds of Jews.  He worked with the Jewish relief agency Delegazione Assistenze Emigranti Ebrei (Jewish Emigrant Association; Delasem) and Father Marie-Benoit.  (Waagenaar, Sam. The Pope’s Jews. (La Salle, IL: Open Court Publishers, 1974), pp. 394-395, 399.)

Bishop of Chiavari, Italy

(JDC Archives, NYC, USA; CDEC, Milan; Bauer, 1981; Bennedetto, 1948; Carpi, 1994, pp. 139-140, 174-176, 178-179, 190, 281n.52, 294nn.6, 7, 301n.26, 303n.39; Cavaglion, 1981; De Felice, 1961, 1988; Gutman, 1990, 2007, pp. 353, 367; Leboucher, 1969; Michaelis, 1978, pp. 356, 364, 371, 388; Poliakov& Sabille, 1955; Rayski, 2005; Sarfatti, 2006, p. 209; Sorani, 1983; Vaccari, 1968; Waagenaar 1974; Zuccotti, 2000, pp. 144-147, 149, 178, 181-187, 197, 234-237, 245, 249-250, 256, 304, 307-308, 380n16, 385n30)

Cardinal Elia Dalla Costa, Archbishop of Genoa, Italy, Jewish-Christian Aid Committee

(Yad Vashem Archives; JDC Archives, NYC, USA; CDEC, Milan; Bauer, 1981; Bennedetto, 1948; Carpi, 1994, pp. 139-140, 174-176, 178-179, 190, 281n.52, 294nn.6, 7, 301n.26, 303n.39; Cavaglion, 1981; De Felice, 1961, 1988; Gutman, 1990, 2007, pp. 353, 367, 401-402; Leboucher, 1969; Michaelis, 1978, pp. 356, 364, 371, 388; Poliakov& Sabille, 1955; Rayski, 2005; Sarfatti, 2006, p. 209; Sorani, 1983; Vaccari, 1968; Waagenaar 1974; Zuccotti, 2000, pp. 144-147, 149, 178, 181-187, 197, 234-237, 245, 249-250, 251-252, 256, 275, 304, 307-308, 380n16, 385n30)

Angelo Donati, Nice, France, Italy (Jewish)

Angelo Donati was an Italian banker in Nice, France.  He was appointed as an advisor to Italian occupation official Guido Lospinoso, who was the Inspector of Racial Policy.  Donati advised Lospinoso on Jewish affairs.  On numerous occasions, they resisted cooperating with planned German deportations.  He also worked with Italian Consul Alberto Calisse in Nice.  After the Italian withdrawal from southern France in September 1943, Donati continued his work to help save his fellow Jews in Italy.  Specifically, he worked with Father Marie-Benoit and the Jewish emigration association DELASEM.  Donati worked with Italian Consul General of Nice Alberto Calisse and Count Quinto Mazzolini. 

(JDC Archives, NYC, USA; CDEC, Milan; Bauer, 1981; Bennedetto, 1948; Carpi, 1994, pp. 71, 94-99, 139-142, 145-146, 153, 158, 174-180, 188-190, 240nn46, 47, 281nn50, 52, 294nn.6, 7, 295n22, 301nn20, 26, 302n34, 303n.39; Cavaglion, 1981; De Felice, 1961, 1988; Gutman, 1990, 2007, pp. 353, 367; Leboucher, 1969; Michaelis, 1978, pp. 309-310, 342-344, 356, 364, 371, 388; Poliakov& Sabille, 1955; Rayski, 2005; Sarfatti, 2006, p. 209; Sorani, 1983; Vaccari, 1968; Waagenaar 1974; Zuccotti, 2000, pp. 144-147, 149, 178, 181-187, 197, 234-237, 245, 249-250, 256, 304, 307-308, 380n16, 385n30)

Mario Finzi, Italy

(JDC Archives, NYC, USA; CDEC, Milan; Bauer, 1981; Bennedetto, 1948; Carpi, 1994, pp. 139-140, 174-176, 178-179, 190, 281n.52, 294nn.6, 7, 301n.26, 303n.39; Cavaglion, 1981; De Felice, 1961, 1988; Gutman, 1990, 2007, pp. 353, 367; Leboucher, 1969; Michaelis, 1978, pp. 356, 364, 371, 388; Poliakov& Sabille, 1955; Rayski, 2005; Sarfatti, 2006, p. 209; Sorani, 1983; Vaccari, 1968; Waagenaar 1974; Zuccotti, 2000, pp. 144-147, 149, 178, 181-187, 197, 234-237, 245, 249-250, 256, 304, 307-308, 380n16, 385n30)

Cardinal Maurilio Fossati, Archbishop of Turin, Italy, helped DELASEM, distributed funds to Jews, worked with his secretary Monsignor Vincenzo Barale to aid Jews (Zuccotti, 2000, pp. 239, 241, 243-245)

Hungarian Consul, Rome, Italy

Aaron Kasztersztein (Jewish), Member of the Executive Committee, Delasem, Rome

Aaron Kasztersztein was a Jewish member of the Executive committee of the Delegazione Assistenze Emigranti Ebrei (Jewish Emigrant Association; Delasem) and worked with Father Marie-Bénoit in protecting Jews in Rome, Italy. 

(JDC Archives, NYC, USA; CDEC, Milan; Bauer, 1981; Bennedetto, 1948; Carpi, 1994, pp. 139-140, 174-176, 178-179, 190, 281n.52, 294nn.6, 7, 301n.26, 303n.39; Cavaglion, 1981; De Felice, 1961, 1988; Gutman, 1990, 2007, pp. 353, 367; Leboucher, 1969; Michaelis, 1978, pp. 356, 364, 371, 388; Poliakov& Sabille, 1955; Rayski, 2005; Sarfatti, 2006, p. 209; Sorani, 1983; Vaccari, 1968; Waagenaar 1974; Zuccotti, 2000, pp. 144-147, 149, 178, 181-187, 197, 234-237, 245, 249-250, 256, 304, 307-308, 380n16, 385n30)

Cyril Kotnik, Yugoslav consul, Rome, Italy (Leboucher, 1969)

Fernando LeBoucher●, awarded Righteous Among the Nations title

(Yad Vashem Archives; JDC Archives, NYC, USA; CDEC, Milan; Bauer, 1981; Bennedetto, 1948; Carpi, 1994, pp. 139-140, 174-176, 178-179, 190, 281n.52, 294nn.6, 7, 301n.26, 303n.39; Cavaglion, 1981; De Felice, 1961, 1988; Gutman, 1990, 2007, pp. 353, 367; Leboucher, 1969; Michaelis, 1978, pp. 356, 364, 371, 388; Poliakov& Sabille, 1955; Rayski, 2005; Sarfatti, 2006, p. 209; Sorani, 1983; Vaccari, 1968; Waagenaar 1974; Zuccotti, 2000, pp. 144-147, 149, 178, 181-187, 197, 234-237, 245, 249-250, 256, 304, 307-308, 380n16, 385n30)

Joseph (Giuseppe) Levi (Jewish), Member of the Executive Committee

Joseph Levi was a Jewish member of the Executive committee of the Delegazione Assistenze Emigranti Ebrei (Jewish Emigrant Association; Delasem) and worked with Father Marie-Bénoit in protecting Jews in Rome, Italy. 

(JDC Archives, NYC, USA; CDEC, Milan; Bauer, 1981; Bennedetto, 1948; Carpi, 1994, pp. 139-140, 174-176, 178-179, 190, 281n.52, 294nn.6, 7, 301n.26, 303n.39; Cavaglion, 1981; De Felice, 1961, 1988; Gutman, 1990, 2007, pp. 353, 367; Leboucher, 1969; Michaelis, 1978, pp. 356, 364, 371, 388; Poliakov& Sabille, 1955; Rayski, 2005; Sarfatti, 2006, p. 209; Sorani, 1983; Vaccari, 1968; Waagenaar 1974; Zuccotti, 2000, pp. 144-147, 149, 178, 181-187, 197, 234-237, 245, 249-250, 256, 304, 307-308, 380n16, 385n30)

Enrico Luzzato, Italy

(JDC Archives, NYC, USA; CDEC, Milan; Bauer, 1981; Bennedetto, 1948; Carpi, 1994, pp. 139-140, 174-176, 178-179, 190, 281n.52, 294nn.6, 7, 301n.26, 303n.39; Cavaglion, 1981; De Felice, 1961, 1988; Gutman, 1990, 2007, pp. 353, 367; Leboucher, 1969; Michaelis, 1978, pp. 356, 364, 371, 388; Poliakov& Sabille, 1955; Rayski, 2005; Sarfatti, 2006, pp. 166, 209; Sorani, 1983; Vaccari, 1968; Waagenaar 1974; Zuccotti, 2000, pp. 144-147, 149, 178, 181-187, 197, 234-237, 245, 249-250, 256, 304, 307-308, 380n16, 385n30)

Monsignor Giacomo Menghello, secretary to Cardinal Dalla Costa, liaison to Jewish-Christina Aid Committee (Zuccotti, 2000, p. 252)

Mrs. Giacomo Meneghello, Florence, Italy

Dr. Giuseppe Moreali●, Villa Emma, Nonantola, Modena Province, awarded Righteous Among the Nations title February 18, 1964 (Yad Vashem Archives; Gutman, 2007; Voigt, 2002; Zimmerman, 2005, pp. 190, 195)

Giorgio Nissim, Lucca, Italy

(JDC Archives, NYC, USA; CDEC, Milan; Bauer, 1981; Bennedetto, 1948; Carpi, 1994, pp. 139-140, 174-176, 178-179, 190, 281n.52, 294nn.6, 7, 301n.26, 303n.39; Cavaglion, 1981; De Felice, 1961, 1988; Gutman, 1990, 2007, pp. 353, 367, 400; Leboucher, 1969; Michaelis, 1978, pp. 356, 364, 371, 388; Poliakov& Sabille, 1955; Rayski, 2005; Sarfatti, 2006, p. 209; Sorani, 1983; Vaccari, 1968; Waagenaar 1974; Zuccotti, 2000, pp. 144-147, 149, 178, 181-187, 197, 234-237, 245, 249-250, 256-258, 304, 307-308, 380n16, 385n30)

 Rabbi Riccardo Pacifici, Genoa (Jewish)

(JDC Archives, NYC, USA; CDEC, Milan; Bauer, 1981; Bennedetto, 1948; Carpi, 1994, pp. 139-140, 174-176, 178-179, 190, 281n.52, 294nn.6, 7, 301n.26, 303n.39; Cavaglion, 1981; De Felice, 1961, 1988; Gutman, 1990, 2007, pp. 353, 367; Leboucher, 1969; Michaelis, 1978, pp. 356, 364, 371, 388; Poliakov& Sabille, 1955; Rayski, 2005; Sarfatti, 2006, p. 209; Sorani, 1983; Vaccari, 1968; Waagenaar 1974; Zuccotti, 2000, pp. 144-147, 149, 178, 181-187, 197, 234-237, 245, 249-250, 256, 304, 307-308, 380n16, 385n30)

Father Arturo Paoli●, Lucca, Italy, awarded Righteous Among the Nations title May 19, 1999 (Yad Vashem Archives; Gutman, 2007, pp. 394-395; Zuccotti, 2000, p. 257)

Father (Monsignor) Francesco Repetto●, Genoa, Italy, head of the Repetto Rescue Network, DELASEM, awarded Righteous Among the Nations title April 29, 1976 (Yad Vashem Archives; Gutman, 2007, p. 400; Zuccotti, 2000, p. 235-241, 244-246, 249, 252, 253, 255-256)

Father Cipriano Ricotti●, Dominican friar, San Marco Monastary, Florence, Italy, awarded Righteous Among the Nations title October 26, 1982 (Yad Vashem Archives; Gutman, 2007, pp. 367, 401-402; Zuccotti, 2000, pp. 252-253, 384n10, 385n25)

Giuseppe Sala+ (lawyer), president, Society of Saint Vincent de Paul (lay organization), Milan, Italy, delegate for Cardinal Schuster, aided Jews in escaping to Switzerland, was arrested by authorities (Zuccotti, 2000, pp. 244-250, 382n36)

Father Carlo Salvi●, Italy, awarded Righteous Among the Nations title April 29, 1976 (Yad Vashem Archives; Gutman, 2007, pp. 400, 404; Zuccotti, 2000, p. 237)

Cardinal Ildefonso Schuster, Archbishop of Milan, Italy, aided DELASEM and helped Jews during the German occupation of Milan (Zuccotti, 2000, pp. 52, 242, 244-250, 275, 296-298, 380n10)

Stefan Schwamm, Italy (Jewish), Member of the Executive Committee

Stefan Schwamm was a Jewish member of the Executive committee of the Delegazione Assistenze Emigranti Ebrei (Jewish Emigrant Association; Delasem) and worked with Father Marie-Bénoit in protecting Jews in Rome, Italy.  On several occasions, Schwamm posed as Monsieur Bernard Lioré, a French delegate of the International Committee of the Red Cross (ICRC) to help Jews be released from imprisonment. 

(JDC Archives, NYC, USA; CDEC, Milan; Bauer, 1981; Bennedetto, 1948; Carpi, 1994, pp. 139-140, 174-176, 178-179, 190, 281n.52, 294nn.6, 7, 301n.26, 303n.39; Cavaglion, 1981; De Felice, 1961, 1988; Gutman, 1990, 2007, pp. 353, 367; Leboucher, 1969; Michaelis, 1978, pp. 356, 364, 371, 388; Poliakov& Sabille, 1955; Rayski, 2005; Sarfatti, 2006, p. 209; Sorani, 1983; Vaccari, 1968; Waagenaar 1974; Zuccotti, 2000, pp. 144-147, 149, 171, 178, 181-187, 197, 234-237, 245, 249-250, 256, 304, 307-308, 380n16, 385n30)

Father Don Sirio, Lucca, Italy, worked with DELASEM representative Giorgio Nissim to help Jews and others hide (Zuccotti, 2000, p. 257)

Settimio Sorani, Italy (Jewish), Member of the Executive Committee

Settimio Sorani was a Jewish member of the Executive committee of the Delegazione Assistenze Emigranti Ebrei (Jewish Emigrant Association; Delasem) and worked with Father Marie-Bénoit in protecting Jews in Rome, Italy. 

(JDC Archives, NYC, USA; CDEC, Milan; Bauer, 1981; Bennedetto, 1948; Carpi, 1994, pp. 139-140, 174-176, 178-179, 190, 281n.52, 294nn.6, 7, 301n.26, 303n.39; Cavaglion, 1981; De Felice, 1961, 1988; Gutman, 1990, 2007, pp. 353, 367, 400; Leboucher, 1969; Michaelis, 1978, pp. 356, 364, 371, 388; Poliakov& Sabille, 1955; Rayski, 2005; Sarfatti, 2006, p. 209; Sorani, 1983; Vaccari, 1968; Waagenaar 1974; Zuccotti, 2000, pp. 144-147, 149, 175-176, 178, 181-187, 197-198, 234-237, 245, 249-250, 256, 304-305, 307-308, 380n16, 385n30)

Father Don Guido Staderini, Lucca, Italy, worked with Girgio Nissim, the DELASEM representative, to help Jews and non-Jews in hiding (Zuccotti, 2000, p. 257)

Massimo Teglio, DELASEM, Genoa, Italy

(JDC Archives, NYC, USA; CDEC, Milan; Bauer, 1981; Bennedetto, 1948; Carpi, 1994, pp. 139-140, 174-176, 178-179, 190, 281n.52, 294nn.6, 7, 301n.26, 303n.39; Cavaglion, 1981; De Felice, 1961, 1988; Gutman, 1990, 2007, pp. 353, 367; Leboucher, 1969; Michaelis, 1978, pp. 356, 364, 371, 388; Poliakov& Sabille, 1955; Rayski, 2005; Sarfatti, 2006, p. 209; Sorani, 1983; Vaccari, 1968; Waagenaar 1974; Zuccotti, 2000, pp. 144-147, 149, 178, 181-187, 197, 234-238, 245, 249-250, 256, 304, 307-308, 380n16, 385n30)

Carla Uccelli, Women’s Section, Saint Vincent de Paul Society, Milan, Italy, aided Jews (Zuccotti, 2000, pp. 246, 382n44)

Father Raimondo Viale, Borgo San Dalmazzo

Rolando Vigevani (Jewish), DELASEM

(JDC Archives, NYC, USA; CDEC, Milan; Bauer, 1981; Bennedetto, 1948; Carpi, 1994, pp. 139-140, 174-176, 178-179, 190, 281n.52, 294nn.6, 7, 301n.26, 303n.39; Cavaglion, 1981; De Felice, 1961, 1988; Gutman, 1990, 2007, pp. 353, 367; Leboucher, 1969; Michaelis, 1978, pp. 356, 364, 371, 388; Poliakov& Sabille, 1955; Rayski, 2005; Sarfatti, 2006, p. 209; Sorani, 1983; Vaccari, 1968; Waagenaar 1974; Zuccotti, 2000, pp. 144-147, 149, 178, 181-187, 197, 234-237, 245, 249-250, 256, 304, 307-308, 380n16, 385n30)

Joseph Zeigler (Jewish), philanthropist, gave one million lire for aid to Jews in Florence; worked through DELASEM (Zuccotti, 2000, pp. 254, 385n24)

Helped by:

Mr. Charrier, Director of the Ration Card Office for Foreigners, Rome, Italy, 1943

Mr. Charrier was the Director of the Ration Card Office for Foreigners for the Italian government.  Charrier issued over 1,300 illegally-distributed ration cards to Jewish refugees trapped in Rome.  Charrier worked with Father Bénoit and the Delegazione Assistenze Emigranti Ebrei (Jewish Emigrant Association; Delasem).  (Leboucher, Fernande. Translated by J. F. Bernard. Incredible Mission. (Garden city, NY: Doubleday, 1969). Waagenaar, Sam. The Pope’s Jews. (La Salle, IL: Open Court Publishers, 1974). Katz, Robert. Black Sabbath: A Journey Through a Crime Against Humanity. (Toronto: MacMillan, 1969).)

Dr. Angelo de Fiore●, Director of the Questura Bureau for Foreigners, Rome, Italy, 1943

Dr. Fiore issued letters of identification and status for Jewish refugees on behalf of the Italian government.  He did this without official authorization.  For his work in helping Jews and other refugees, he was awarded 18 international decorations, including the French Legion of Honor.  He worked with Father Bénoit and the Delegazione Assistenze Emigranti Ebrei (Jewish Emigrant Association; Delasem).  Dr. Angelo de Fiore was awarded a special gold medal for his lifesaving activities in Italy by the Hebrew Union of Italy.  Awarded Righteous Among the Nations title July 8, 1969 (Yad Vashem Archives.  Leboucher, Fernande. Translated by J. F. Bernard. Incredible Mission. (Garden city, NY: Doubleday, 1969). Waagenaar, Sam. The Pope’s Jews. (La Salle, IL: Open Court Publishers, 1974). Katz, Robert. Black Sabbath: A Journey Through a Crime Against Humanity. (Toronto: MacMillan, 1969).)

Dominican Convent, Fossano, Italy; hid, sheltered and provided for Jews during the German occupation (Yad Vashem Archives; Gutman, 2007, p. 377)

Mother Superior Sister Maria Angelica Ferrari●, awarded Righteous Among the Nations title December 14, 1992 (Yad Vashem Archives; Gutman, 2007, p. 377)

Franciscan Fathers at St. Bartholomew’s, Rome and Turin, Italy

Franciscan Monastery, Treviso, Italy (Yad Vashem Archives; Gutman, 2007, pp. 272-273)

Father Angello della Torre●, awarded Righteous Among the Nations title December 14, 1992 (Yad Vashem Archives; Gutman, 2007, pp. 272-273)

Franciscan Sisters of Mary (Piazza del Carmine), Florence, Italy

Girotti Rescue Network, Dominical Theological Seminary, Turin, Italy (Santa Maria delle Rose; Gutman, 2007, pp. 381-382)

Father Giuseppe Girotti●+* (1905-1945), rescued numerous Jews in Turin area, was arrested August 29, 1944, imprisoned and deported to Dachau concentration camp, where he was murdered in April 1945, awarded Righteous Among the Nations title February 14, 1995 (Yad Vashem Archives; Gutman, 2007, pp. 381-382)

Instituto Angelo Mai, Rome, Italy

Instituto la Casa, Italy

Father Paolo Liccero, Italy

Instituto Palazzolo, Milan, Italy

Mother Donata

Instituto Pio XI, Salesian Order (Gutman, 2007)

Jewish-Christian Aid Committee (Commitato di Assistenza Protughi; Refugee Assistance Committee), Florence, Italy, see also DELASEM

Headed by Cardinal Elia dalla Costa, the Jewish-Christian Aid Commttee saved hundreds of Jews who had fled from France to Italy.  Rescue and aid operation was financed by the American Jewish Joint Distribution Committee (JDC).  Money was smuggled in by DELASEM couriers from Switzerland.  Twenty-one convent monasteries and churches were involved in rescuing 110 Italian and 220 foreign Jews.

(CDEC, b. 13-B, Artom report; Yad Vashem Archives; De Falice, 1961, 1988; Gutman, 2007, pp. 367, 372-373, 401-402; Pandolfi, 1980, pp. 36-40; Pandolfi, 1983; Zuccotti, 1987;  Zuccotti, 2000, pp. 251-252, 254-256)

Rabbi Nathan Cassuto+ (Jewish), leader of the Jewish-Christian Aid Committee, member of DELASEM, Florence, Italy (CDEC, b 13-B, Artom Report, 8-A-I, F; Yad Vashem Archives; Gutman, 2007, pp. 367, 372-373, 401-402; Pandolfi, 1980, 1983; Zuccotti, 1987; Zuccotti, 2000, pp. 251, 255, 384n30)

Monsignor Bartoletti+, rector, Seminary Minore, Florence, Italy, arrested by authorities on December 8, 1943 (Zuccotti, 2000, pp. 255, 385n30)

Raffael Cantoni (Jewish), National Coordinator, DELASEM (CDEC, b.13-B, 8-A-I, F; Minerbi, 1978; Pandolfi, 1980, 1983; Zuccotti, 1987, p. 211; Zuccotti, 2000, p. 251)

Father Leto Casini●+ (b. 1902), DELASEM representative, parish priest, Varlungo, Florence, Italy, Jewish-Christian Aid Committee, awarded Righteous Among the Nations title December 14, 1965 (Yad Vashem Archives; Casini, Leto, Ricordi di un Vecchio Prete, Florence, 1986; Gutman, 2007, pp. 367, 372, 401-402; Pandolfi, 1980, 1983; Zuccotti, 1987, p. 211; Zuccotti, 2000, pp. 252-254, 256, 258, 322)

Cardinal Elia Dalla Costa, Archbishop of Genoa, Italy, leader, activist, Jewish-Christian Aid Committee (Yad Vashem Archives; Casini, Leto, Ricordi di un Vecchio Prete, Florence, 1986; Fondo Dalla Costa, b. 8, Israeliti, 1944-1945, Doc. 31; Gutman, 2007, pp. 401-402; Pandolfi, 1980, 1983; Zuccotti, 1987, p. 211; Zuccotti, 2000, pp. 252, 256, 275)

Father Giulio Facibeni● (b. 1884), director Maddonnina del Grippa Orphanage, awarded Righteous Among the Nations title September 2, 1996 (Yad Vashem Archives; Gutman, 2007, pp. 367, 376, 401-402)

Monsignor Giacomo Meneghello, secretary to Cardinal Dalla Costa, liaison to Jewish Christian Aid Committee (Archivo Arcivescouile di Firenze (AAF), Fondo dalla Costa, b. 8, Israeliti, 1944-1945, Doc. 31; Zuccotti, 2000, p. 252)

Father Cipriano Ricotti●, Dominican friar, San Marco Monastary, Florence, Italy, awarded Righteous Among the Nations title October 26, 1982 (Yad Vashem Archives; Gutman, 2007, pp. 367, 401-402; Pandolfi, 1980, 1983; Ricotti, n.d.; Zuccotti, 1987, p. 211; Zuccotti, 2000, pp. 252-253, 384n10, 385n25)

Father Giovani Simioni●, chaplain, Santo Spirito Convent in Verlungo, Florence, Italy, awarded Righteous Among the Nations title December 14, 1965 (Yad Vashem Archives; Gutman, 2007, pp. 367, 372-373, 401-402; Pandolfi, 1980)

Father Angelo Dalla Torre●, awarded Righteous Among the Nations title December 14, 1965 (Yad Vashem Archives; Gutman, 2007, pp. 367, 372-373, 401-402)

Father Giuseppe de Zotti●, Florence, Italy, awarded Righteous Among the Nations title December 14, 1965 (Yad Vashem Archives; Gutman, 2007, pp. 372-375; Pandolfi, 1980)

Mother Superior Sandra Businelli●, Missionary Franciscan Sisters of Maria Convent, Florence, Italy, awarded Righteous Among the Nations title July 31, 1995 (Yad Vashem Archives; Gutman, 2007, pp. 359-361, 402)

Mother Maria Folcia●, Institito di Santa Maria Settignano, near Florence, Italy, awarded Righteous Among the Nations title December 13, 1994 (Yad Vashem Archives; Gutman, 2007, p. 359-361)

Mother Sandra Vespignani●, Missionary Franciscan Sisters of Maria Convent, Florence, Italy, awarded Righteous Among the Nations title December 13, 1994 (Yad Vashem Archives; Gutman, 2007, pp. 359-361, 402; Zuccotti, 2000, p. 253)

Eugenio Artom (Jewish), leader, Jewish community, Florence, Italy (Zuccotti, 2000, pp. 254, 385nn23, 25)

Matilde Cassin (Jewish), DELASEM, worked with Father Ricotti to hide Jewish children (Pandolfi, 1980; Zuccotti, 2000, pp. 251-253)

Hans Kahlberg+ (Jewish), arrested, deported to Auschwitz January 30, 1944, survived (Fargion, 1991; Zuccotti, 2000, pp. 255, 385n29)

Luciana Lascar+* (Jewish), arrested and sent to Auschwitz, January 30, 1944, murdered there (Fargion, 1991; Zuccotti, 2000, pp. 255, 385n29)

Wanda Lascar+* (Jewish), arrested and sent to Auschwitz, January 30, 1944, murdered there (Fargion, 1991; Zuccotti, 2000, pp. 255, 385n29)

Leonilda Pancani●+ (d. 1982), mother to three children, worked with Jewish-Christian Aid Committee, hid Jews in her home during German occupation of Florence, Italy, awarded Righteous Among the Nations title February 11, 1999 (Yad Vashem Archives; Gutman, 2007, pp. 393-394, 402)

Giuliano Treves (Jewish) (CDEC, b.13-B, Artom Report; Pandolfi, 1980; Zuccotti, 2000, p. 251)

Joseph Ziegler+* (Jewish), refugee from Belgium, philanthropist, donated one million lire for Jewish aid and rescue, deported to and murdered in Auschwitz, January 31, 1944 (Goldman, 1993, pp. 59-60; Zuccotti, 2000, pp. 252, 254-255, 384n23)

La Calza Convent, Florence, Italy, hid Jews (Gutman, 2007; Zuccotti, 2000, p. 385n30)

Mother Superior

Nuns/sisters

Madonna del Grappa Orphanage, Rifredi Quarter, Florence, Italy, worked with Jewish Christian Aid Committee (Yad Vashem Archives; Gutman, 2007, pp. 367, 372-373, 376; Zuccotti, 2000)

Father Giulio Facibeni● (b. 1884), head, worked with Jewish Chriastan Aid Network in Florence, Italy, awarded Righteous Among the Nations title September 2, 1996 (Yad Vashem Archives; Gutman, 2007, pp. 367, 376, 401-402)

Father Giovanni Simeoni●, chaplain Santo Spirito Convent in Verlungo, Florence, Italy, awarded Righteous Among the Nations title December 14, 1965 (Yad Vashem Archives; Gutman, 2007, pp. 372-373)

Father Leto Casini● (b. 1902), awarded Righteous Among the Nations title December 14, 1965 (Yad Vashem Archives; Gutman, 2007, pp. 367, 372-373; Zuccotti, 2000, pp. 252-254, 256, 258, 322, 384n8, 384n10)

Missionary Franciscan Sisters of Maria (Suore Franescane Missionarie de Maria), Florence, Italy; hid and sheltered between 30-40 Jewish children during the German occupation of Florence, Italy (Yad Vashem Archives; Gutman, 2007, pp. 359-361)

Mother Superior Sister Sandra-Ester Busnelli●, awarded Righteous Among the Nations title July 31, 1995 (Yad Vashem Archives; Gutman, 2007, pp. 359-361)

Mother Marta Folcia●, awarded Righteous Among the Nations title December 13, 1994 (Yad Vashem Archives; Gutman, 2007, pp. 359-361)

Mother Benedetta Vespignani●, awarded Righteous Among the Nations title December 13, 1994 (Yad Vashem Archives; Gutman, 2007, pp. 359-361)

Worked with:

Engrico Sepgiani●, awarded Righteous Among the Nations title December 13, 1994 (Yad Vashem Archives; Gutman, 2007, pp. 359-361)

Luigina Sergiani●, awarded Righteous Among the Nations title December 13, 1994 (Yad Vashem Archives; Gutman, 2007, pp. 359-361)

Nonantola Catholic Seminary (Seminario Minore di Nonantola), village of Nonantola, Villa Emma Catholic Seminary, Nonantola, Modena Province, Italy, see also DELASEM

Thirty families in Nonantola, along with Catholic clergy and Jewish leaders, helped the refugee Jewish children to survive the war.  (Yad Vashem Archives; Freier, 1961, pp. 64-68; Gutman, 2007, pp. 352, 389-390; Ithai (Indig), 1982 [Hebrew], cited in Zimmerman, 2008; Voigt, 2002; Zimmerman, 2005, pp. 182-198; Zimmerman, 2002)

Father Arrigo (Ario) Beccari●+, teacher, rector, San Pietro Church, Rubbiara, protected children, awarded Righteous Among the Nations title February 18, 1964 (Yad Vashem Archives; Gutman, 2007, p. 352; Voigt, 2002; Zimmerman, 2005, pp. 190, 195)

Eugenio Bollaffio, DELASEM (Voigt, 2002; Zimmerman, 2005, p. 185)

Dr. Giuseppe Moreali MD●, awarded Righteous Among the Nations title (Yad Vashem Archives; Gutman, 2007, p. 352; Voigt, 2002; Zimmerman, 2005,pp. 190, 195)

Armand Moreno, DELASEM, board member, Villa Emma (Zimmerman, 2005, p. 190)

Monsignor (Don) Ottaviano Pelato, rector of seminary, hid and sheltered Jewish childnred in seminary (Gutman, 2007, p. 352; Zimmerman, 2005, pp. 190-191)

Father Don Ennio Tardini, teacher (Gutman, 2007, p. 352)

Recha Freier (Jewish), founder, Youth Aliya, Germany, Austria, helped 5,000 Jewish gilrs and boys to emigrate from Germany and Austria to Palestine (Voigt, 2002; Zummerman, 2005, pp. 183-184)

Josef Indig (Jewish), Hashomer Hatzair, DELASEM (Gutman, 2007; Voigt, 2002; Zimmerman, 2005, pp. 184-187, 191, 192, 194; Zuccotti, 2000, p. 352)

Umberto Jacchia (Jewish), DELASEM, Genoa, Italy, principal, Villa Emma (Zimmerman, 2005, p. 188)

Boris Jochvedson (Jewish), DELASEM, teacher, board member, Villa Emma (Voigt, 2002; Zummerman, 2005, p. 186)

Richard Lichtem (Jewish), Geneva, Switzerland (Voigt, 2002; Zimmerman, 2005, pp. 193-194)

Goffredo Pacifici+* (Jewish), DELASEM, helped smuggle children to Switzerland, arrested and murdered in Auschwitz (Gutman, 2007, p. 352; Voigt, 2002; Zimmerman, 2005, pp. 192, 194)

Josef Schleich (Jewish), Graz, Austria, helped Recha Freier in Youth Aliya emigration program (Zimmerman, 2005, p. 183)

Marco Schoky (Jewish), DELASEM, treasurer, board member, Villa Emma (Voigt, 2002; Zimmerman, 2005, p. 186)

Hersz Naftali Schuldenfrei (Jewish), teacher (Voigt, 2002; Zimmerman, 2005, pp. 189, 194)

Nathan Schwalb (Jewish), director of Hehalutz Zionist Youth, Geneva, Switzerland, helped Villa Emma children enter Swtizerland (Voigt, 2002; Zimmerman, 2005, p. 192)

Police Inspector, Maribor

Nonantola Village, Villa Emma Building (Yad Vashem Archives; Gutman, 2007, p. 352)

Father Aldo Beccari●, awarded Righteous Among the Nations title February 18, 1964 (Yad Vashem Archives; Gutman, 2007, p. 352; Voigt, 2002; Zimmerman, 2005, pp. 190, 195)

Dr. Guiseppe Moreli MD● (layperson), awarded Righteous Among the Nations title (Yad Vashem Archives; Gutman, 2007, p. 352; Voigt, 2002; Zimmerman, 2005, pp. 190, 195)

Organizzazione Sacerdotale Cattolica per l’Aiuto al Ricercati (OSCAR), Italy rescue network, saved 2,000 Jews, distributed 3,000 forged papers (Barbareschi, Memoria di Sacerdoti, 194-203, Di Vita, “Gli Ebrei di Milano”; Gutman, 2007, p. 404; Zuccotti, 2000, pp. 247, 383n48)

Father Dante Sala●+ (b. 1905), San Marino Supino di Mirandola, head of rescue network, awarded Righteous Among the Nations title February 18, 1969 (Yad Vashem Archives; Gutman, 2007, p. 404)

Father Giovani Barbeschi, Organizzazione Soccorsi Cattolici Antifascisti Ricercati (Zuccotti, 2000, pp. 247, 383n48)

Father Enrico Bigatti, Organizzazione Soccorsi Cattolici Antifascisti Ricercati (Zuccotti, 2000, pp. 247, 383n48)

Odoardo Focherini●, awarded Righteous Among the Nations title (Yad Vashem Archives; Gutman, 2007, p. 404)

Father Andrea Ghetti, Organizzazione Soccorsi Cattolici Antifascisti Ricercati (Zuccotti, 2000, pp. 247, 383n48)

Father Carlo Gnocchi, Organizzazione Soccorsi Cattolici Antifascisti Ricercati (Zuccotti, 2000, pp. 247, 383n48)

Father Aurelio Guissani, Organizzazione Soccorsi Cattolici Antifascisti Ricercati (Zuccotti, 2000, pp. 247, 383n48)

Father Natale Motto, Organizzazione Soccorsi Cattolici Antifascisti Ricercati (Zuccotti, 2000, pp. 247, 383n48)

Father Luigi Re, Organizzazione Soccorsi Cattolici Antifascisti Ricercati (Zuccotti, 2000, pp. 247, 383n48)

Orsoline del Cuore Agonizzante Convent, Via di Villa Ricotti (near Nomentana), Italy, housed and sheltered Jews (Lichten, 1963; Zuccotti, 2000, p. 78)

Ospizo Poveri Convalescenti alla Crocetta, Turin, Italy, nuns helped and sheltered elderly Jews (Archivo della Curia di Torino [ACT], b. 14.14.107.1X, F.IV; Zuccotti, 2000, p. 241)

Patronage of Saint Antonio School, Milan, Italy; hid, sheltered and protected more than 100 Jewish boys in school (Gutman, 2007, p. 361)

Father Eugenio Bussa● (1904-1977), director of school, awarded Righteous Among the Nations title March 28, 1990 (Yad Vashem Archives; Gutman, 2007, p. 361)

Father Reppeto Rescue Network, leader, DELASEM, Genoa, Italy (CDC Milan; JDC Archives NYC, USA; Bennedetto, 1948; Brizzolari, 1971; Carpi, 1994; Cavaglion, 1981; De Felice, 1961, 1988; Gutman, 2007, p. 400; Le Boucher, 1969; Michaelis, 1978; Sorani, 1981; Zuccotti, 2000, pp. 235-241, 244-246, 249, 252-253, 255-256)

Father Francesco Repetto●, leader, secretary to Archbishop Boetto, Genoa, Italy, awarded Righteous Among the Nations title April 29, 1976 (Yad Vashem Archives; CDC Milan; JDC Archives NYC, USA; Bennedetto, 1948; Brizzolari, 1971; Carpi, 1994; Cavaglion, 1981; De Felice, 1961, 1988; Gutman, 2007, p. 400; Le Boucher, 1969; Michaelis, 1978; Sorani, 1981; Zuccotti, 2000, pp. 235-241, 244-246, 249, 252-253, 255-256)

Cardinal Maurilio Fossati, Archbishop of Turin, Italy, distributed DELASEM funds, aided Jew in local Catholic institution under his supervision (Zuccotti, 2000, pp. 239, 241, 243-245, 275)

Archbishop Pietro Boetto● (d. 1946), Genoa, Italy, awarded Righteous Among the Nations title (Yad Vashem Archives; CDC Milan; JDC Archives NYC, USA; Bennedetto, 1948; Brizzolari, 1971; Carpi, 1994; Cavaglion, 1981; De Felice, 1961, 1988; Gutman, 2007, p. 400; Le Boucher, 1969; Michaelis, 1978; Sorani, 1981; Zuccotti, 2000, pp. 77, 235-236, 244, 269, 275, 371n29, 385n30)

Bishop of Chivari, Genoa, Italy (CDC Milan; JDC Archives NYC, USA; Bennedetto, 1948; Brizzolari, 1971; Carpi, 1994; Cavaglion, 1981; De Felice, 1961, 1988; Gutman, 2007, p. 400; Le Boucher, 1969; Michaelis, 1978; Sorani, 1981;  Zuccotti, 2000, p. 237)

Monsignor Vincenzo Barale+ (d. 1979), secretary for Cardinal Maurillio Fossati, Archbishop of Turin, Italy, distributed DELASEM funds, aided Jew in local Catholic institution under his supervision, arrested and imprisoned in Turan, Italy (CDEC Milan 9/2; JDC Archives NYC, USA; Bennedetto, 1948; Brizzolari, 1971; Carpi, 1994; Cavaglion, 1981; De Felice, 1961, 1988; Gutman, 2007, p. 400; Le Boucher, 1969; Michaelis, 1978; Sorani, 1981; Zuccotti, 1987, p. 211; Zuccotti, 2000, pp. 239, 241, 243-245, 275)

Monsignor Giacomo Lercano, went into hiding (Zuccotti, 2000, p. 237)

Monsignor Giacomo Massa+, arrested for helping Jews to cross the Swiss frontier (Zuccotti, 2000, p. 238)

Monsignor Gian Maria Rotanti+, chaplain Massari Prison, arrested for helping Jewish women in prison (Zuccotti, 2000, p. 235)

Monsignor Giuseppe Siri, went into hiding after helping Jews (Zuccotti, 2000, p. 237)

Father Leto Casini● (b. 1902), Florence, Italy, awarded Righteous Among the Nations title December 14, 1965 (Yad Vashem Archives; CDC Milan; JDC Archives NYC, USA; Bennedetto, 1948; Brizzolari, 1971; Carpi, 1994; Cavaglion, 1981; De Felice, 1961, 1988; Gutman, 2007, pp. 367400; Le Boucher, 1969; Michaelis, 1978; Sorani, 1981; Zuccotti, 2000, pp. 235-241, 244-246, 249, 252-253, 255-256)

Father Carlo Salvi●, DELASEM (CDC Milan; JDC Archives NYC, USA; Bennedetto, 1948; Brizzolari, 1971; Carpi, 1994; Cavaglion, 1981; De Felice, 1961, 1988; Gutman, 2007, p. 400; Le Boucher, 1969; Michaelis, 1978; Sorani, 1981; Zuccotti, 1987, p. 211; Zuccotti, 2000, pp. 235-241, 244-246, 249, 252-253, 255-256)

Father Raimondo Viale●, Borgo San Dalmazzo (Gutman, 2007)

Georgio Nissim (Jewish), DELASEM, Lucca, Italy (CDC Milan; JDC Archives NYC, USA; Bennedetto, 1948; Brizzolari, 1971; Carpi, 1994; Cavaglion, 1981; De Felice, 1961, 1988; Gutman, 2007, p. 400; Le Boucher, 1969; Michaelis, 1978; Sorani, 1981; Zuccotti, 2000, pp. 235-241, 244-246, 249, 252-253, 255-258)

Settimio Sorani (Jewish), DELASEM, Rome, Italy (CDC Milan; JDC Archives NYC, USA; Bennedetto, 1948; Brizzolari, 1971; Carpi, 1994; Cavaglion, 1981; De Felice, 1961, 1988; Gutman, 2007, p. 400; Le Boucher, 1969; Michaelis, 1978; Sorani, 1981; Zuccotti, 2000, pp. 235-241, 244-246, 249, 252-253, 255-256)

Massimo Teglio (Jewish), DELASEM (CDC Milan; JDC Archives NYC, USA; Bennedetto, 1948; Brizzolari, 1971; Carpi, 1994; Cavaglion, 1981; De Felice, 1961, 1988; Gutman, 2007, p. 400; Le Boucher, 1969; Michaelis, 1978; Sorani, 1981; Zuccotti, 2000, pp. 235-241, 244-246, 249, 252-253, 255-256)

Lelio Vittoria Valobra (Jewish), DELASEM (CDC Milan; JDC Archives NYC, USA; Bennedetto, 1948; Brizzolari, 1971; Carpi, 1994; Cavaglion, 1981; De Felice, 1961, 1988; Gutman, 2007, p. 400; Le Boucher, 1969; Michaelis, 1978; Sorani, 1981; Zuccotti, 2000, pp. 235-241, 244-246, 249, 252-253, 255-256)

Penitenzeria Lateranense (Franciscan), Rome, Italy

Pontificio Seminario Romano Maggiore, Rome, Italy (Vatican Property; Yad Vashem Archives; Gutman, 2007, pp. 346-347)

Father Vincenzo Fagiolo●, awarded Righteous Among the Nations title May 26, 1983 (Yad Vashem Archives; Gutman, 2007, pp. 346-347)

Pontifico Instituto Orientale

Poor Clares Mendicant Order of Nuns
, Monastery of San Quirico, Italy

Sacerdoti Oblati, Via del Giardino Botanica, Lucca, Italy (CDEC, b. 8-A-I, F.; Zuccotti, 2000, p. 257)

Giorgio Nissim of DELASEM obtained office in the Sacerdoti Oblati in order to help refugee Jews and others; he worked with:

Father Paoli (Zuccotti, 2000, p. 257)

Father Sirio (Zuccotti, 2000, p. 257)

Father Guido Staderini (Zuccotti, 2000, p. 257)

Saint Giovanni Basilica, Vatican City, Rome, Italy, hid Jews during German occupation of Rome (Gutman, 2007, pp. 346-347)

Saint Vincent de Paul Society of Milan, Italy, Catholic lay organization, worked with Cardinal Boetto of Genoa to aid Jews, helped and cooperated with DELASEM (Zuccotti, 2000, pp. 244, 382n36)

Monsignor Vincenzo Barale

Giuseppe Sala, president, lawyer, delegate for Cardinal Schuster (Zuccotti, 2000, pp. 244, 382n36)

Carla Uccelli, Women’s Section (Zuccotti, 2000, p. 246)

Salesian Institute Pius XI College, Rome, Italy (Yad Vashem Archives; Gutman, 2007, pp. 345-346)

Father Francesco Antonioli●, Italy, director Pio (Pius) XI College of the Salesian Institution of the Order San Giovanni Bosco, Rome, Italy, hid and sheltered Jews during German occupation of Rome, 1943-1944, awarded Righteous Among the Nations title October 6, 1996 (Yad Vashem Archives; Gutman, 2007, pp. 344-345)

Father Armondo Alessandrini●, Pio (Pius) XI College of the Salesian Institution of the Order of San Giovanni Bosco, Rome, Italy, hid and sheltered Jews during German occupation of Rome, 1943-1944, awarded Righteous Among the Nations title October 6, 1996 (Yad Vashem Archives; Gutman, 2007, pp. 344-345)

San Damiano Monastery, Assisi, Italy, see Assisi Underground (Gutman, 2007, pp. 358, 391-392; Ramati, 1978; Santucci, 1994; Zuccotti, 2000, pp. 259-265)

Father Don Rufino Niccaci● (1911-1976), Convent of San Damiano, Italy, hid 100 Jews in Monasteries around Assisi, Assisi Underground Rescue Network, Italy, awarded Righteous Among the Nations title April 17, 1974 (Yad Vashem Archives; Gutman, 2007, pp. 358, 391-392; Ramati, 1978; Santucci, 1994; Zuccotti, 2000, pp. 259-265)

San Giacchino Church, Prato Quarter, Rome, Italy (Yad Vashem Archives; Gutman, 2007, pp. 386-387)

Father Antonio Dressino●, head San Gioacchino Church, Prato Quarter, Rome, Italy, awarded Righteous Among the Nations title July 31, 1995 (Yad Vashem Archives; Gutman, 2007, pp. 386-387)

San Giaccomo (Joaquin) Convent, Rome, Italy

Sister Marguerite Bernes (Daughters of Charity)

San Giuseppe al Casaletto Convent and Girls School, Rome, Italy (Yad Vashem Archives; Gutman, 2007, pp. 356-357)

Sister Anna (Emerenzia; Mother Emerenzia) Bolledi●, Saint Giuseppe (di Chambery) Via del Casaletto, Rome, Italy, awarded Righteous Among the Nations title August 4, 1997 (Yad Vashem Archives; Gutman, 2007, pp. 356-357)

Headmistress Sister Maria Ferdinanda Corsetti●, Saint Giuseppe (di Chambery) Via del Casaletto, Rome, Italy, awarded Righteous Among the Nations title August 4, 1997 (Yad Vashem Archives; Gutman, 2007, pp. 356-357)

San Giuseppe Recreation Center, Via Domenico Cirillo, Florence, Italy, hid and sheltered 20 Jewish men, was raided November 26-27, 1943 (Zuccotti, 2000, pp. 256, 385n34)

San Marco Monastery, Florence, Italy (Yad Vashem Archives; Gutman, 2007, pp. 367, 401-402)

Father Cipriano Ricotti●, Dominican friar (DELASEM), Jewish-Christian Committee, awarded Righteous Among the Nations title December 10, 1972 (Yad Vashem Archives; Gutman, 2007, pp. 367, 401-402)

San Rufino Catherdral, Assisi, Italy, see also Assisi Underground Rescue Network (Gutman, 2007, p. 358)

Aldo Brunacci●+, Assisi Rescue Network, awarded Righteous Among the Nations title June 16, 1977 (Yad Vashem Archives; Gutman, 2007, p. 358)

Professor Cannon

Santa Croce Monastery, Assisi, Italy, hid, sheltered and protected Jews during German occupation, worked with Assisi Underground and the Committee of Assistance (Gutman, 2007, p. 358)

Santa Maria del Carmine Church, Piazza del Carmine, Florence, Italy, hid and protected 30 Jewish young girls and women, many were found and arrested in November 1943 (Zuccotti, 2000, pp. 255, 385n31)

Santa Maria Della Divina Provvidenz

Santa Marta Institute, Collegio di Santa Marta, Settignano (Boys School)
, Florence, Italy, hid 15 young Jewish boys (Yad Vashem Archives; Gutman, 2007, pp. 359-361; Zuccotti, 2000, p. 256)

Sister Marta Folcia●, Missionary Sisters of Maria, Florence, Italy, awarded Righteous Among the Nations title December 13, 1994 (Yad Vashem Archives; Gutman, 2007, pp. 359-361)

Sister Benedetta Vespignani●, Missionary Sisters of Maria, Florence, Italy, member Jewish Christian Rescue Network, awarded Righteous Among the Nations title December 13, 1994 (Yad Vashem Archives; Gutman, 2007, pp. 359-361, 402)

Santo Spirito Convent, Florence, Italy (Yad Vashem Archives; Gutman, 2007, pp. 372-373, 400)

Father Giovanni Simioni●, chaplain Santo Spirito Convent, Verlungo, Florence, Italy, member Jewish Christian Rescue Network, awarded Righteous Among the Nations title December 14, 1965 (Yad Vashem Archives; Gutman, 2007, pp. 372-373, 400)

Mother Superior (Gutman, 2007, pp. 372-373, 400)

Seminario (Collegio) Lombardo, Vatican Property, Rome, Italy; hid 50 Jews in the Seminary during the German occupation of Rome (Zuccotti, 2000, pp. 238, 380n13)

Monsignor Francesco Bertoglio (Zuccotti, 2000, pp. 238, 380n13)

Seminary Minore (Seminario Minore), Florence, Italy, used as an assembly center to distribute refugee Jews to Catholic institutions (Zuccotti, 2000, pp. 254-255, 385n30)

Monsignor Bartoletti (Zuccotti, 2000, ppl. 254-255, 385n30)

Seminary of Saint Damiano

Serve di Maria SS Addolorata Convent
, Florence, Italy (Gutman, 2007, p. 369)

Mother Superior Maria Maddelana Cei●, hid, sheltered and protected 12 Jewish girls during German occupation of Florence, October 1943-1944, awarded Righteous Among the Nations title September 4, 1997 (Yad Vashem Archives; Gutman, 2007, p. 369)

Sezione Aerea de San Gioacchino (SASG) Rescue Network, Rome, Italy (Gutman, 2007, pp. lxxxvi, 386, 387)

Hid, sheltered and fed refugee Jews during Nazi occupation of Rome, September 1943 – June 1944.

Pietro Lestini● (d. 1960), founder, leader, awarded Righteous Among the Nations title July 31, 1995 (Yad Vashem Archives; Gutman, 2007, pp. 386-387)

Mrs. Giuliana Lestini● and two daughters, awarded Righteous Among the Nations title July 31, 1995 (Yad Vashem Archives; Gutman, 2007, pp. 386-387)

Father Antonia Dressino●, head, San Gioacchino Church, hid Jews in attic of San Gioacchino Church, awarded Righteous Among the Nations title July 31, 1995 (Yad Vashem Archives; Gutman, 2007, pp. 286-287)

Mother Marguerite Bernes●, awarded Righteous Among the Nations title, see Rescue in France, Clergy (Yad Vashem Archives; Gutman, 2007, p. 387)

Sisters of Our Lady of Sion Convent (Nostra Signora de Sion), Janiculum Hill, Garibaldi Street, Rome, Italy, hid, sheltered and provided for more than 100 Jews during the German occupation of Rome, 1943-1944 (Yad Vashem Archives; Gutman, 2007, p. 350)

Sister Agnesa● (Virginie Badetti), Mother Superior, awarded Righteous Among the Nations title May 19, 1998 (Yad Vashem Archives; Gutman, 2007, p. 350)

Sister Augustine● (Emilia Benedeti), awarded Righteous Among the Nations title May 19, 1998 (Yad Vashem Archives; Gutman, 2007, p. 350)

Suore di San Giuseppe Dell’Apparizione Convent, Via Gioberti, Florence, Italy; hid Jews, was raided by Germans on November 26-27, 1943 (Zuccotti, 2000, pp. 34, 385n34)

Individuals: Clergy - Italy

Cardinal Pietro Boetto, Genoa, Italy (Gutman, 2007; Zuccotti, 2000, pp. 77, 235-236, 244, 269, 275, 371n29, 385n30)

Cardinal Elia Dalla Costa, Archbishop of Genoa, Italy, Jewish-Christian Aid Committee (Yad Vashem Archives; Gutman, 2007, pp. 367, 401-402; Zuccotti, 2000, pp. 251-252, 256, 275)

Cardinal Maurilio Fossati, Archbishop of Turin, Italy, Delasem and Repetto Rescue Network (Zuccotti, 2000, pp. 239, 241, 243-245, 275)

Cardinal Piazza

Cardinal Ildesfonso Schuster, Archbishop of Milan, Italy, helped release Jews (Gutman, 2007, p. 361)

Bishop of Chiavari, Italy

Bishop Antonio Santin, Bishop of Trieste and Capodistma, Italy, spoke out strongly against racial police and persecution of Jews in Italy (Zuccotti, 2000, pp. 279-290, 322, 390n13)

Monsignor Vincenzo Barale, director, Turin Network, DELASEM (worked with Valdemar and Nina Langlet●, Swedish Red Cross), Italy (Zuccotti, 2000, pp. 239-245, 252-253, 256, 308, 381n29)

Monsignor Italo Ciulli, Gambassi (near Florence), Italy

Monsignor Giacomo Meneghello, Florence, Italy (DELASEM; Zuccotti, 2000, pp. 252, 254, 256)

Monsignor Quadaroli, secretary at Vatican

Father (Monsignor) Francesco Repetto●, Genoa, Italy, head of the Repetto Rescue Network, DELASEM, awarded Righteous Among the Nations title April 29, 1976 (Yad Vashem Archives; Gutman, 2007, p. 400; Zuccotti, 2000, p. 235-241, 244-246, 249, 252, 253, 255-256)

Monsignor Beniamino Schivo● (b. 1910), rector, Seminary in Citta di Castello, Italy, awarded Righteous Among the Nations title June 8, 1986 (Yad Vashem Archives; Gutman, 2007, p. 406)

Father Armondo Alessandrini●, Pio (Pius) XI College of the Salesian Institution of the Order of San Giovanni Bosco, Rome, Italy, hid and sheltered Jews during German occupation of Rome, 1943-1944, awarded Righteous Among the Nations title October 6, 1996 (Yad Vashem Archives; Gutman, 2007, pp. 344-345)

Father Pasquale Amerio● (b. 1915), assistant to Father Francesco Raspino, Rector at the College Civio in Salluzzo (Cuneo Provicne), Italy, awarded Righteous Among the Nations title May 22, 1983 (Yad Vashem Archives; Gutman, 2007, p. 399)

Father Francesco Antonioli●, Italy, director Pio (Pius) XI College of the Salesian Institution of the Order San Giovanni Bosco, Rome, Italy, hid and sheltered Jews during German occupation of Rome, 1943-1944, awarded Righteous Among the Nations title October 6, 1996 (Yad Vashem Archives; Gutman, 2007, pp. 344-345)

Father Carlo Banfi, Sormano, Italy

Father Angelo Bassi●, Italy, awarded Righteous Among the Nations title (Yad Vashem Archives; Gutman, 2007)

Father Arrigo Beccari●, Nonantola, Italy, teacher, Catholic Seminary, rector, Church of San Pietro, Rubbiara, Italy, hid and protected 100 Jewish youth and their leaders in Villa Emma in Village of Nonantola, Modena Province, Italy, awarded Righteous Among the Nations title February 18, 1964 (Yad Vashem Archives; Gutman, 2007, p. 352)

Father Bernardino, Ancona, Italy

Father Egidio Bertollo, near Padua, Italy

Father Guido Bortolameotti● (b. 1904), Village priest, Cloz, Trentino Province, Italy, hid Jewish family, awarded Righteous Among the Nations title December 14, 1981 (Yad Vashem Archives; Gutman, 2007, p. 357)

Father Alfredo Braccagni● (b. 1913), Anciano, Sovicille, Italy, hid and protected Jews in his home, awarded Righteous Among the Nations title January 31, 1978 (Yad Vashem Archives; Gutman, 2007, pp. 366-367)

Father Don Francesco Brondello●, Valdieri, Italy, awarded Righteous Among the Nations title (Yad Vashem Archives; Gutman, 2007)

Father Aldo Brunacci●+, Italy, head Committee for Assistance, Cannon Cathedral of San Rufino, Assisi Rescue Underground, awarded Righteous Among the Nations title December 6, 1977 (Yad Vashem Archives; Gutman, 2007, p. 358, 391; Ramati, 1978; Zuccotti, 2000, pp. 259-264)

Father Eugenio Bussa●+ (1904-1977), Vice Director/Director Patronage of Saint Antonio School, Milan, Italy, hid, sheltered and protected more than 100 Jewish boys in his school and personal residence, arrested for activities, awarded Righteous Among the Nations title March 28, 1990 (Yad Vashem Archives; Gutman, 2007, p. 361)

Father Callixte, Italy

Father Michele Carlotto●, Village Valli di Pasubio, Vincena District, Italy, awarded Righteous Among the Nations title June 24, 1996 (Yad Vashem Archives; Gutman, 2007, p. 365)

Father Leto Casini● (b. 1902), Varlungo, Italy, worked with Jewish-Christian Aid Committee, Jewish-Christian Rescue Network, Florence, Italy, awarded Righteous Among the Nations title December 14, 1965 (Yad Vashem Archives; Gutman, 2007, pp. 372-373, 367, 400)

Father Allessandro Daeli● (b. 1895), parish priest, Church of Santa Eurosia of the Order of Saint Filippo Neri, Garbatella Square, Rome, Italy, hid Jews in church, awarded Righteous Among the Nations title September 2, 1999 (Yad Vashem Archives; Gutman, 2007, p. 372)

Father Giuseppe De Zotti●, Italy, hid and protected Jews, awarded Righteous Among the Nations title December 14, 1965 (Yad Vashem Archives; Gutman, 2007, pp. 372-375)

Father Angelo Della Torre●, Italy, member Jewish Christian Rescue Network, hid and protected Jews, awarded Righteous Among the Nations title December 14, 1965 (Yad Vashem Archives; Gutman, 2007, pp. 372-373, 400)

Father Antonio Dressino●, head San Gioacchino Church, Prato Quarter, Rome, Italy, hid Jews in church, awarded Righteous Among the Nations title July 31, 1995 (Yad Vashem Archives; Gutman, 2007, pp. 386-387)

Father Hiulio Facibeni●, Madonna del Grappa Orphanage, Rifredi Quarter, Florence, Italy, worked with Jewish Christian Aid Network in Florence, Italy, worked under Cardinal Elia Dalla Costa, awarded Righteous Among the Nations title September 2, 1996 (Yad Vashem Archives; Gutman, 2007, p. 376)

Vincenzo Fagiolo●, hid Michael Tagliacozzo, 22, a Roman Jew in Vatican property, awarded Righteous Among the Nations title May 26, 1983 (Yad Vashem Archives; Gutman, 2007, pp. 346-347)

Father Carlo Ferrero, Valle d’Acosta, Italy

Father Giuseppe Girotti●* (1905-1945), Dominican Monk, Turin, Italy, murdered in Dachau, awarded Righteous Among the Nations title February 14, 1995 (Yad Vashem Archives; Gutman, 2007, pp. 381-382)

Father Guido Gradassi●, parish priest, Castelione, Italy, hid Jews in his home and church, awarded Righteous Among the Nations title March 30, 1975 (Yad Vashem Archives; Gutman, 2007, p. 382)

Father Paolo Liggeri, secretary, Italy

Father Calliste Lipinot, Apostolic Visitor in Rome, Italy

Father Umberto Loiacono, Florence, Italy

Father Aldo Mai, Tuscany, Italy

Father Vivaldo Meccaci● (b. 1910), Tonni Parish, Italy, hid, provided for and protected Luzzattis family, awarded Righteous Among the Nations title January 31, 1978 (Yad Vashem Archives; Gutman, 2007, pp. 366-367)

Father Alfredo Melani● (b. 1911), parish priest, Church of Santa Eurosia, Order of Saint Fillippo Neri, Garbatella Quarter, Rome, Italy, hid Jews in church, awarded Righteous Among the Nations title September 2, 1999 (Yad Vashem Archives; Gutman, 2007, p. 372)

Father Elio Monari, Modena, Italy

Father Don Rufino Niccaci● (1911-1976), Convent of San Damiano, Italy, hid 100 Jews in Monasteries around Assisi, Assisi Underground Rescue Network, Italy, awarded Righteous Among the Nations title April 17, 1974 (Yad Vashem Archives; Gutman, 2007, pp. 358, 391-392; Ramati, 1978; Santucci, 1994; Zuccotti, 2000, pp. 259-265)

Father (Monsignor) Giuseppe Placido Nicolini● (1911-1976), Bishop of Assisi, Italy, awarded Righteous Among the Nations title December 6, 1977 (Yad Vashem Archives; Gutman, 2007, pp. 358, 391-392; Ramati, 1978; Zuccotti, 2000, pp. 259-265)

Father Ernesto Ollari●+, Village of Calestano, Province of Parma, Italy, awarded Righteous Among the Nations title August 2, 1999 (Yad Vashem Archives; Gutman, 2007, pp. 348-349)

Father Pietro Palazzini●, Rome, Italy, awarded Righteous Among the Nations title May 26, 1983 (Yad Vashem Archives; Gutman, 2007, pp. 346-347)

Father Arturo Paoli●, Lucca area, Garfagnana, Italy, DELASEM, rescued Gerstel family, awarded Righteous Among the Nations title May 19, 1999 (Yad Vashem Archives; Gutman, 2007, pp. 394-395)

Father Fernando Pasin●, parish priest, San Martino, Treviso, Italy, awarded Righteous Among the Nations title December 23, 1999 (Yad Vashem Archives; Gutman, 2007, p. 395)

Father Amerio Pasquale● (b. 1915), assistant rector, Collegio Civico, Salvazzo, Cuneo Province, Italy, hid Jews in College, awarded Righteous Among the Nations title May 22, 1983 (Yad Vashem Archives; Gutman, 2007, p. 399)

Father Giuseppe Peaquin, Valle de Aosta, Italy

Father Francesco Raspino● (b. 1885), rector, Collegio Civico, Saluzzo, Cuneo Province, Italy, hid Jews in his College, awarded Righteous Among the Nations title May 22, 1983 (Yad Vashem Archives; Gutman, 2007, p. 399)

Father Francesco Repetto●, secretary to Archbishop Cardinal Pietro Boetto, 1940-1945, Genoa, Italy, awarded Righteous Among the Nations title April 29, 1976 (Yad Vashem Archives; Gutman, 2007, p. 400)

Father Benedetto Richeldi●, Village Finale Emilia (near Modena), Italy, hid, sheltered, moved and protected Jews during German occupation, awarded Righteous Among the Nations title May 3, 1973 (Yad Vashem Archives; Gutman, 2007, p. 401)

Father Cipriano Ricotti●+, Dominican friar, Convent of San Marco, Florence, Italy, leader Jewish-Christian Committee Rescue Network, worked with Nathan Cassuto, September 1943 – November 1945, arrested, awarded Righteous Among the Nations title December 10, 1972 (Yad Vashem Archives; Gutman, 2007, pp. 401-402)

Father Don Raimundo, Viale, Borgo San Dalmazzo, Italy

Father Luigi Rosadini● (b. 1913), Italy, awarded Righteous Among the Nations title October 26, 1982 (Yad Vashem Archives; Gutman, 2007, p. 402)

Angelo Rotta●, Nuncio, Budapest, Hungary, awarded Righteous Among the Nations title (Yad Vashem Archives; Gutman, 2007)

Father Dante Sala●+ (b. 1905), Italy, awarded Righteous Among the Nations title February 18, 1969 (Yad Vashem Archives; Gutman, 2007, p. 404)

Father Carlo Salvi●, Father Repetto Rescue Network, Genoa, Italy, DELASEM, awarded Righteous Among the Nations title April 29, 1976 (Yad Vashem Archives; Gutman, 2007, p. 404; Zuccotti, 2000, p. 237)

Father Beniamino Schivo● (b. 1910), Convent and Seminary of the Sacred Heart, Italy, hid, sheltered and transported Jews, awarded Righteous Among the Nations title June 8, 1986 (Yad Vashem Archives; Gutman, 2007, p. 406)

Father Giovanni Simioni●, chaplain Santo Spirito Convent, Verlungo, Florence, Italy, member Jewish Christian Rescue Network, awarded Righteous Among the Nations title December 14, 1965 (Yad Vashem Archives; Gutman, 2007, pp. 372-373, 400)

Father Giovani Sisto, village priest, Isolengo (Alessandia), near Cantavenna, Italy, hid Jewish family, worked with Giuseppo Brusasca Rescue and Resistance Group (Gutman, 2007, p. 359)

Father Gaetano Tantalo● (1905-1947), Italy, priest, Church of San Pietro (Saint Peter) in Tagliacozzo, Italy, awarded Righteous Among the Nations title May 31, 1978 (Yad Vashem Archives; Gutman, 2007, p. 411)

Father Michel Todde (Santucci, 1994; Zuccotti, 2000, pp. 259-264)

Father Ernesto Torra, village priest, Monferrato Region, hid Jewish family, worked with Giuseppo Brusasca Rescue and Resistance Group (Gutman, 2007, p. 359)

Father Genaro Verolino●, Italy, First Secretary, Vatican Nunciatura, Budapest, Hungary,  awarded Righteous Among the Nations title (Yad Vashem Archives; Braham, 1991)

Father Don Viale, Father Repetto Rescue Network, Cuneo-Genoa, Italy (Gutman, 2007)

Pastor Tullio Vinay●, Florence, Italy, awarded Righteous Among the Nations title February 24, 1981 (Yad Vashem Archives; Gutman, 2007, pp. 354-355)

Father Frederico Vincenti● (1885-1955), head of the Parochial House, Church of Saint Andrea, Porta Santa Susanna, Perugia, Italy, awarded Righteous Among the Nations title July 16, 1997 (Yad Vashem Archives; Gutman, 2007, pp. 412-413; Ramati, 1978; Santucci, 1994)

Reverend Professor Frigo, Seminary in Vicanza, Italy

Sister Maria Antoniazzi●, Italy, awarded Righteous Among the Nations title (Yad Vashem Archives; Gutman, 2007)

Sister Virginia (M. Agnesa; Mother Maria Agustina) Badetti●, Sisters of Our Lady of Sion Convent, Rome, Italy, awarded Righteous Among the Nations title May 19, 1998 (Yad Vashem Archives; Gutman, 2007, p. 350)

Sister Emilia (Augustine; Mother Maria Agnese) Benedetti●, Sisters of Our Lady of Sion Convent, Rome, Italy, awarded Righteous Among the Nations title May 19, 1998 (Yad Vashem Archives; Gutman, 2007, p. 350)

Sister Anna (Emerenzia; Mother Emerenzia) Bolledi●, Saint Giuseppe (di Chambery) Via del Casaletto, Rome, Italy, awarded Righteous Among the Nations title August 4, 1997 (Yad Vashem Archives; Gutman, 2007, pp. 356-357)

Sister Sandra Ester Busnelli●, head missionary, Sisters of Maria, Florence, Italy, member Jewish Christian Rescue Network, awarded Righteous Among the Nations title July 31, 1995 (Yad Vashem Archives; Gutman, 2007, pp. 359-361, 400)

Sister Maria Maddalena Cei●, Mother Superior, Serve di Maria SS Addoloratta Convent, Florence, Italy, hid, sheltered and provided for 12 Jewish girls during the German occupation of Florence, Italy, awarded Righteous Among the Nations title September 4, 1997 (Yad Vashem Archives; Gutman, 2007, p. 369)

Sister Maria Ferdinanda Corsetti●, Saint Giuseppe (di Chambery) Via del Casaletto, Rome, Italy, awarded Righteous Among the Nations title August 4, 1997 (Yad Vashem Archives; Gutman, 2007, pp. 356-357)

Sister Maria-Angelica Ferrari●, Mother Superior, Dominican Convent, Fossano, Italy, awarded Righteous Among the Nations title December 14, 1992 (Yad Vashem Archives; Gutman, 2007, p. 377)

Sister Marta Folcia●, Missionary Sisters of Maria, Florence, Italy, awarded Righteous Among the Nations title December 13, 1994 (Yad Vashem Archives; Gutman, 2007, pp. 359-361)

Sister Barbara Lavizzari (Marie Giuseppina)●, Italy, awarded Righteous Among the Nations title (Yad Vashem Archives; Gutman, 2007)

Sister Marie de St. Francois Xavier Marteau●, Italy, awarded Righteous Among the Nations title (Yad Vashem Archives; Gutman, 2007)

Sister Luisa Minardi●, Italy, awarded Righteous Among the Nations title (Yad Vashem Archives; Gutman, 2007)

Sister Maria Rita, Rome, Italy

Sister Benedetta Vespignani●, Missionary Sisters of Maria, Florence, Italy, member Jewish Christian Rescue Network, awarded Righteous Among the Nations title December 13, 1994 (Yad Vashem Archives; Gutman, 2007, pp. 359-361, 402)

Mrs. Giacomo Meneghello, Florence, Italy

Lithuania

Church and Monastery of Kalainiai, Lithuania

Father Polikarpas Macijauskas●

Saint Catherine Church, Vilnius, Lithania

Sister Maria Mikulska

Father Juozas Stakauskas●

Dr. Juzas Stakauskas, Vilnius, Lithuania

Mother Superior Sister Bertranda, Anna Borkowska, Dominican Order, Vilnius, Lithuania; worked with 9 nuns

Sister Maria Mikulska, Vilnius, Lithuania

Vytas Baltutis●

Vincas Byla●

Juozas Gasiūnas●

Antanas Gobis●

Bronius Gotautas●

Stanislovas Jokubauskis●

Kazys Kavaliauskas●

Adolfas Kleiba●

Polikarpas Macijauskas●

Vaclovas Martinkus●

Bronius Paukštys●

Vladas Požela●

Juozas Stakauskas●

Vladas Taskūnas●

Jonas Teišerskis●

Netherlands

Brother Bernardinus (Leonard Hendriks)

Monastery in Helden, Netherlands

Individuals: Clergy

Father Martin Biemans (Lambertus)●, Netherlands

Father Jan Willem Hafmans●, Netherlands

Father Leonard Hendriks (Bernardus)●, Netherlands

Father Antonius Scheermakers●, Netherlands

Father Henricus Vullinghs●, Netherlands

Father Petrus Zijlmans●, Netherlands

Sister Paulina (Emerentia) Cals●, Netherlands

Sister Maria (Eunomia) Houban●, Netherlands

Poland (Gutman, 1990, 2004)

Benedictine Convent, Vilna Colony, Poland

Benedictine Convent, Przemysl, Poland (Gutman, 2004, p. 89)

Sister Kara – Aniela Kotowska●, awarded Righteous Among the Nations title September 19, 1983 (Yad Vashem Archives; Gutman, 2004, p. 89)

Sister Honorata – Irena Bielawska●, awarded Righteous Among the Nations title September 19, 1983 (Yad Vashem Archives; Gutman, 2004, p. 89)

Caritas (Catholic Charities), Warsaw, Poland (Gutman, 2004, p. 412)

Father Michael Kubacki●, director of Caritas, Warsaw, Poland, parish priest, Bazylika Church, Praga suburb, Warsaw, Poland, awarded Righteous Among the Nations title February 10, 1997 (Yad Vashem Archives; Gutman, 2004, p. 412)

Convent of the Felician Order (near Przemysl), Poland

Mother Superior

Convent of the Immaculate Sisters (Siostry Niepokalanki), Warsaw, Poland (Gutman, 2004)

Sister Maria Gorska●, awarded Righteous Among the Nations title (Yad Vashem Archives)

Convent in Olsztyn, Warsaw, Poland

Convent of the Sacred Heart (Ochronka im Swietego Serca), Przemysl, Poland (Gutman, 2004, p. 852)

Saved 13 Jewish children in their Convent of the Sacred Heart during the Nazi occupation, July 1942 until liberation in November 1944.

Eugenia Wasowska-Renot● (Sister Alfonsa), awarded Righteous Among the Nations title October 26, 1980 (Yad Vashem Archives; Gutman, 2004, p. 852)

Anna Grenda● (Sister Ligoria), awarded Righteous Among the Nations title September 11, 1986 (Yad Vashem Archives; Gutman, 2004, p. 852)

Rozalia Domicella Sidelko● (Sister Bernarda), awarded Righteous Among the Nations title September 11, 1986 (Yad Vashem Archives; Gutman, 2004, p. 852)

Leokadia Juskiewcz● (Sister Emilia), awarded Righteous Among the Nations title September 11, 1986 (Yad Vashem Archives; Gutman, 2004, p. 852)

Dom Serca Jesusowego (Sacred Heart) Convent, Skorzec Village, Siedlce Region (east of Warsaw), Poland (Gutman, 2004, pp. 317-318)

Mother Superior Bronislawa Beta Hryniewicz●, awarded Righteous Among the Nations title August 31, 1994 (Yad Vashem Archives; Gutman, 2004, pp. 317-318)

Sister Stanislawa Jóźwikowska●, awarded Righteous Among the Nations title August 31, 1994 (Yad Vashem Archives; Gutman, 2004, pp. 317-318)

Dominican Sisters in Kolonia Wilenska (near Vilna; Gutman, 2004, p. 108)

Mother Superior Anna Borkowska● (Krytyna Bykowska) , awarded Righteous Among the Nations title March 29, 1984 (Yad Vashem Archives; Gutman, 2004, p. 108)

Franciscan Sisters, Laski, Warsaw, Poland

Franciscan Sisters of Mary’s Family (Zgromadzenie Siostr Rodziny Marii), Warsaw, Poland; had more than 100 houses (Gutman, 2004, p. 234)

Mother Superior/Sister Matylda Getter●, awarded Righteous Among the Nations title January 17, 1985 (Yad Vashem Archives; Gutman, 2004, p. 234)

House in Pludy, Poland

Sister Agnela Stawowiak, Mother Superior

Home in Milanowek

Sister Louisa

Helel Home for the Aged and Retarded, Crakow, Poland, helped rescue five Jews in their institution in Crakow (Gutman, 2004, p. 487)

Reverend, Chaplain Albin Malysiak●, awarded Righteous Among the Nations title November 21, 1993 (Yad Vashem Archives; Gutman, 2004, p. 487)

Sister Bronislawa Wilemska●, awarded Righteous Among the Nations title April 25, 1995 (Yad Vashem Archives; Gutman, 2004, p. 487)

Home in Vislana

Mother Superior Pea Lesniewska

Nazarene Sisters (Siostr Nazaretanek), Laski Warszawskie, Poland (Gutman, 2004, pp. 304-305)

Sister Kara Jaroszynski●, awarded Righteous Among the Nations title February 18, 1981 (Yad Vashem Archives; Gutman, 2004, pp. 304-305)

Order of St. Ignatius of Loyola, Pruzana, Poland (Gutman, 2004)

Sister Marianne

Sister Dolorosa● (Gendwefa Czubak), awarded Righteous Among the Nations title (Yad Vashem Archives)

Order of St. Joseph’s Heart Convent (Sw. Jozefa Serca), Przemysl, Poland (southern Poland; Gutman, 2004, p. 852)

Sister Alfonsa● - Eugenia Wasowska, awarded Righteous Among the Nations title September 11, 1986 (Yad Vashem Archives; Gutman, 2004, p. 852)

Sister Ligornia● - Anna Grenda, awarded Righteous Among the Nations title September 11, 1986 (Yad Vashem Archives; Gutman, 2004, p. 852)

Sister Bernarda● - Rozalia Sidelko, awarded Righteous Among the Nations title September 11, 1986 (Yad Vashem Archives; Gutman, 2004, p. 852)

Sister Emilia● - Leokadia Juskiewicz, awarded Righteous Among the Nations title September 11, 1986 (Yad Vashem Archives; Gutman, 2004, p. 852)

Order of the Immaculate Conception Boarding School, Warsaw, Poland

Sister Wanda Garczynska

Boarding School for high school girls in Szymanow, Poland

Sister Irenea

Sister Brigida

Sister Teresa

Sister Deodata

Sister Blanka

Sister Bernard

Father Skalski

Saint Magdalena Convent, Warsaw, Poland

Sister Bernarda

Saint Anthony’s Convent (Swietego Antoniego), Village of Ignacow, Warsaw District, Poland (Gutman, 2004, p. 668)

Hid three Jewish girls who had escaped the liquidation of the Minsk Mazowiecki Ghetto in August 1942.

Mother Superior Marianna Reszko●, awarded Righteous Among the Nations title October 27, 1985 (Yad Vashem Archives; Gutman, 2004, p. 668)

Sister Joanna Mistera●, awarded Righteous Among the Nations title October 27, 1985 (Yad Vashem Archives; Gutman, 2004, p. 668)

Sisters of Maria’s Family Orphanage, Otwock, Pludy (near Warsaw), Poland (Gutman, 2004, pp. 485-486)

 Mother Superior Krystyna Borkowska● (Bykowska), Poland, awarded Righteous Among the Nations title December 14, 1981 (Yad Vashem Archives; Gutman, 2004, pp. 485-486)

Sister Ludwika Malkiewicz●, awarded Righteous Among the Nations title December 14, 1981 (Yad Vashem Archives; Gutman, 2004, pp. 485-486)

Wladyslawa Cyler●, awarded Righteous Among the Nations title December 14, 1981 (Yad Vashem Archives; Gutman, 2004, pp. 485-486)

Sisters of the Order of the Lady Immaculate (Niepokalanki), Warsaw, Szymanow, and Niepokalanow, Poland

Sisters Szarytki of the municipal hospitals in Warsaw and Otwock, Poland

Studite Order, Eastern Galicia, Poland

Turkowice Convent, Hrubieszow County, Lublin District, Poland (Gutman, 2004, p. 629)

Large children’s convent.  Hid, sheltered and cared for numerous Jewish children during German occupation.  Worked closely with Zegota to smuggle children to hiding places in Warsaw.

Aniela Polechajilo● (Sister Stansilaw), Mother Superior, awarded Righteous Among the Nations title November 15, 1989 (Yad Vashem Archives; Gutman, 2004, p. 624)

Antonina Manaszczuk● (Sister Irena) , awarded Righteous Among the Nations title November 15, 1989 (Yad Vashem Archives; Gutman, 2004, p. 624)

Jozefa Romansewicz● (Sister Hermana), awarded Righteous Among the Nations title November 15, 1989 (Yad Vashem Archives; Gutman, 2004, p. 629)

Jan Dobraczynski●, head of the Department of Abandoned Children, Warsaw City Hall, awarded Righteous Among the Nations title (Yad Vashem Archives; Gutman, 2004, p. 629)

Ursuline Sisters (Siostry Vrszulanki Szare), Warsaw-Powisle, Poland, and provincial convents

Individuals: Clergy - Poland

Priests:

Father Bruno Boguszewski●, birth registrar, Swietego Lazarza (Saint Lazarus) Church, Crakow, Poland, awarded Righteous Among the Nations title May 28, 1978 (Yad Vashem Archives; Gutman, 2004, p. 105)

Father Stanisław Falkowski●, Piekuty Nowe, County of Mazowiekie, Bialystok District, Poland, awarded Righteous Among the Nations title October 20, 1977 (Yad Vashem Archives; Gutman, 2004, p. 211)

Father Władysław Głowacki●, Leszno Street Church, Warsaw, Poland, provided Jews with protective papers, hid Jews in his apartment, awarded Righteous Among the Nations title October 28, 1982 (Yad Vashem Archives; Gutman, 2004, p. 239)

Father Józef Górajek●, Poland, awarded Righteous Among the Nations title June 19, 1989 (Yad Vashem Archives; Gutman, 2004, p. 246)

Father Michał Kubacki●, director of Christian Charity group “Charitas,” Warsaw, Poland, priest Bazylika Church, Praga suburg, Warsaw, awarded Righteous Among the Nations title February 10, 1997 (Yad Vashem Archives; Gutman, 2004, p. 412)

Father Małgorzata●, Poland, awarded Righteous Among the Nations title (Yad Vashem Archives)

Bishop (Reverend) Albin Malysiak●, Chaplain, Helel Home for the Aged and Retarded, Crakow, Poland, awarded Righteous Among the Nations title November 21, 1993 (Yad Vashem Archives; Gutman, 2004, p. 487)

Father Stanisław Mazak●, Village of Szcurowice in Radziechow County, Tarnopol District, Poland, awarded Righteous Among the Nations title Feburary 16, 1984 (Yad Vashem Archives; Gutman, 2004, p. 500)

Father Aleksander Osiecki●, Debica County, Rzeszow District, Poland, awarded Righteous Among the Nations title August 21, 1990 (Yad Vashem Archives; Gutman, 2004, p. 567)

Father Jan Patrzyk●, Village of Lipinki, Gorlice County, Crakow District, Poland, awarded Righteous Among the Nations title September 4, 1979 (Yad Vashem Archives; Gutman, 2004, p. 590)

Father Jan Pawlicki●, Tarnopol District, Poland, awarded Righteous Among the Nations title April 29, 1969 (Yad Vashem Archives; Gutman, 2004, p. 103)

Father Jan Poddębniak●, Lublin, Poland, worked with Wadslaw Janczarek to save Jewish Bass sisters, awarded Righteous Among the Nations title June 5, 1986 (Yad Vashem Archives; Gutman, 2004, pp. 296-297)

Father Klemens Szeptyckyj (1869-1950) , Lvov, Poland

Father Adam Sztark●*, Poland (Killed) , awarded Righteous Among the Nations title (Yad Vashem Archives)

Father Zyczynski●, awarded Righteous Among the Nations title (Yad Vashem Archives)

Nuns:

Sister Malgorzatta Adamek●, Dominical Convent Kolonia Wilenska, near Vilna, Lithuania, awarded Righteous Among the Nations title March 29, 1984 (Yad Vashem Archives; Gutman, 2004, p. 108)

Sister Euzebia Bartkowiak●, Poland, awarded Righteous Among the Nations title (Yad Vashem Archives)

Sister Stefania Bednarska●, Dominican Convent in Kolonia Wilenska, near Vilna, Lithuania, awarded Righteous Among the Nations title March 29, 1984 (Yad Vashem Archives; Gutman, 2004, p. 108)

Irena Bielawska●, Sistor Honorata, Przemysl, Poland, worked with Sister Klara (Aniela Kotowska) and Bozena Zlamal to rescue Jewish Whitman family, awarded Righteous Among the Nations title September 19, 1983 (Yad Vashem Archives; Gutman, 2004, p. 89)

Sister Anna (Bertranda) Borkowska●, Mohter Superior, Dominican Convent, Kolonia Wilenska, near Vilna, awarded Righteous Among the Nations title March 29, 1984 (Yad Vashem Archives; Gutman, 2004, p. 108)

Sister Krystyna Bykowska●, Otwock Convent Orphanage, Warsaw, Poland, see Sister Lupinka Malkiewicz, awarded Righteous Among the Nations title December 14, 1981 (Yad Vashem Archives; Gutman, 2004, pp. 485-486)

Sister Genowefa Czubak●, Poland, Catholic Convent, town of Pruzhana, Polesie District, awarded Righteous Among the Nations title June 27, 1980 (Yad Vashem Archives; Gutman, 2004, p. 161)

Sister Helena-Diana Frackiewcz●, Dominical Convent Kolonia Wilenska, near Vilna, Lithuania, awarded Righteous Among the Nations title March 29, 1984 (Yad Vashem Archives; Gutman, 2004, p. 108)

Sister Bronisława Roza Galus●, Poland, awarded Righteous Among the Nations title (Yad Vashem Archives)

Sister Wanda Garczyńska●, Prioress of the Chaste Sisters Nunnery, Warsaw, Poland, awarded Righteous Among the Nations title March 7, 1983 (Yad Vashem Archives; Gutman, 2004, p. 227)

Matylda Getter● (Mother Matylda), Head (Mother Superior), Franciscan Order of Mary’s Family (Zgromadzenie Siostr Rodziny Marii), Warsaw, Poland, hid numerous Jewish children in Catholic homes and institutions during the German occupation of Warsaw District in Poland, 1942-1943, many were children taken out of the Warsaw Ghetto, she worked with CENTOS, awarded Righteous Among the Nations title January 17, 1985 (Yad Vashem Archives; Gutman, 2004, p, 234)

Sister Maria Górska●, Warsaw, Poland, Convent of the Sacred Heart, Ursuline Sisters, awarded Righteous Among the Nations title October 27, 1997 (Yad Vashem Archives; Gutman, 2004, pp. 249-250)

Sister Anna (Ligoria) Grenda●, Poland, awarded Righteous Among the Nations title September 11, 1986 (Yad Vashem Archives; Gutman, 2004, p. 852)

Mother Superior Bronisława (Beata) Hryniewicz, Sacred Heart Convent, Skorzek, Poland, awarded Righteous Among the Nations title August 31, 1994 (Yad Vashem Archives; Gutman, 2004, pp. 317-318)

Sister Klara Jaroszyński●, Nazarene Sisters (Siostr Nazaretanek), Warsaw, Poland, awarded Righteous Among the Nations title February 18, 1981 (Yad Vashem Archives; Gutman, 2004, pp. 304-305)

Sister Stanisława Jóźwikowska●, Dom Serca Jesusowego (Sacred Heart) Convent, Skorzec, Poland, awarded Righteous Among the Nations title August 31, 1994 (Yad Vashem Archives; Gutman, 2004, pp. 317-318)

Sister Leokadia (Emilia) Juśkiewicz●, Convent of the Sacred Heart (Ochronka im Swietego Serca), Przemysl, Poland, awarded Righteous Among the Nations title September 11, 1986 (Yad Vashem Archives; Gutman, 2004, p. 852)

Sister Aniela (Klara) Kotowska●, Przemysl, Poland, worked with Irena Bielawska (Sister Honorata) and Bozena Zlamal to rescue the Whetman family in Przcmsyl, awarded Righteous Among the Nations title September 19, 1983 (Yad Vashem Archives; Gutman, 2004, p. 89)

Sister Zofia Bogumila Makowska●, awarded Righteous Among the Nations title September 21, 1993 (Yad Vashem Archives; Gutman, 2004, p. 480)

Sister Ludwika Malkiewicz●, Otwok Convent Orphanage, Warsaw, Poland, awarded Righteous Among the Nations title December 14, 1981 (Yad Vashem Archives; Gutman, 2004, pp. 485-486)

Sister Antonia (Irena) Manaszczuk●, Turkowice Convent, Hrubieszow County, Lublin District, Poland, awarded Righteous Among the Nations title November 15, 1989 (Yad Vashem Archives; Gutman, 2004, p. 629)

Sister Julia (Bernardetta) Michorowska●, Poland, awarded Righteous Among the Nations title (Yad Vashem Archives)

Sister Maria Mikulska●, Vilna, Lithuania, awarded Righteous Among the Nations title October 17, 1974 (Yad Vashem Archives; Gutman, 2004, p. 516)

Sister Joanna Mistera●, Saint Anthony’s Convent (Swietego Antoniego), Ignacow, Warsaw District, Poland, awarded Righteous Among the Nations title October 27, 1985 (Yad Vashem Archives; Gutman, 2004, p. 668)

Sister Imelda Neugebauer●,Dominican Convent in Kolonia Wilenska, near Vilna, Lithuania, awarded Righteous Among the Nations title March 29, 1984 (Yad Vashem Archives; Gutman, 2004, p. 108)

Jordana Ostreyko●, Dominican Convent in Kolonia Wilenska, near Vilna, Lithuania, awarded Righteous Among the Nations title March 29, 1984 (Yad Vashem Archives; Gutman, 2004, p. 108)

Sister Aniela (Sister Stanisława) Polechajłło● (Mother Superior), Turkowice Convent, Hrubieszow County, Lublin District, Poland, awarded Righteous Among the Nations title November 15, 1989 (Yad Vashem Archives; Gutman, 2004, p. 629)

Sister Johanna (Zygmunta) Reiter●, Poland, awarded Righteous Among the Nations title March 19, 1986 (Yad Vashem Archives; Gutman, 2004, p. 666)

Sister (Mother Superior) Marina Reszko●, Saint Anthony Convent (Swietego Antoniego), Poland, awarded Righteous Among the Nations title October 27, 1985 (Yad Vashem Archives; Gutman, 2004, p. 668)

Sister Józefa (Hermana) Romansewicz●, Turkowice Convent, Hrubieszow County, Lublin District, Poland, awarded Righteous Among the Nations title November 15, 1989 (Yad Vashem Archives; Gutman, 2004, p. 629)

Sister Celina Roszak●, Dominican Convent in Kolonia Wilenska, near Vilna, Lithuania, awarded Righteous Among the Nations title March 29, 1984 (Yad Vashem Archives; Gutman, 2004, p. 108)

Sister Rozalia (Bernarda) Sidełko●, Convent of the Sacred Heart, awarded Righteous Among the Nations title September 11, 1986 (Yad Vashem Archives; Gutman, 2004, p. 852)

Sister Maria Siwek●, Poland, awarded Righteous Among the Nations title (Yad Vashem Archives)

Sister Julia Sosnowska●, Warsaw, Poland, awarded Righteous Among the Nations title May 12, 1996 (Yad Vashem Archives; Gutman, 2004, p. 741)

Sister Eugenia (Alfonsa) Wąsowska●, Convent of the Sacred Heart, near Przemysl, Poland, awarded Righteous Among the Nations title October 26, 1980 (Yad Vashem Archives; Gutman, 2004, p. 852)

Sister Bronisława Wilemska●, Helel Home for the Aged and Retarded, Crakow, Poland, awarded Righteous Among the Nations title April 25, 1995 (Yad Vashem Archives; Gutman, 2004, p. 487)

Sister Zygmunta (Johanna Retter)

Other Clergy:

Osikiewicz●, Poland, awarded Righteous Among the Nations title (Yad Vashem Archives)

Witold Szymczikiewicz●, Poland, awarded Righteous Among the Nations title (Yad Vashem Archives)

Jadwiga Urbańczyk●, Poland, awarded Righteous Among the Nations title (Yad Vashem Archives)

Ignacy Życzyński●, Poland, awarded Righteous Among the Nations title (Yad Vashem Archives)

Note: there were at least 190 convents in Poland that offered help and asylum to Jewish children.

Romania

Archbishop of Transylvania Nicolae Balan

Father Gheorghe Petre●

Scotland

Jane Haining●, Budapest, Hungary (Protestant)

Slovakia

Notre Dame Convent Orphanage, Trencin

Mother Superior, Imberta Sinska

Notre Dame Convent, Klastor pod Znievom

Sister Jana Novotna

Sister Vilma Cremanova

Individuals (Slovakia):

Father Pawel Boharczyk●

Father Stefan Gallo●

Sister (Mother Superior) Imberta Inska●

●, PolandArchbishop of Uppsala, Sweden

Archbishop Earling Eiden, Sweden, head, Swedish Lutheran Church

Pastor Olle Nystedt, Stockholm, Sweden

Pastor Erik Myrgren●

Pastor Erik Perwe (Berlin)

Switzerland

Father Albert Gross●

Sister Jeanna Berchmans

Ukraine

Sister Helena Witer●

Vatican Nunciatura (diplomats)

Bulgaria

Monsignor Angelo Rotta●

Monsignor Angelo Rotta was a major rescuer of Jews and was one of the few Papal nuncios to take direct action to save Jews.  At the time of his assignment in Budapest, he was 72 years old.  As a member of the Vatican diplomatic corps in Sofia, Bulgaria, he took measures to save Bulgarian Jews by issuing false baptismal certificates and visas for Jews to travel to Palestine.  Later, Rotta was the Dean of the diplomatic corps in Budapest.  He actively protested the deportation and murder of Hungarian Jews.  He eventually issued more than 15,000 safe conduct certificates to Jews who were protected by the Vatican neutrality.  Rotta also issued hundreds of safe conducts and baptismal certificates to Jews in labor camps, at deportation centers and on the death marches.  He set up and personally protected numerous safe houses throughout Budapest. Rotta was aided by his assistant, Father Gennaro Verolino.  The Vatican utilized numerous Jewish and non-Jewish volunteers in its rescue efforts.  Angelo Rotta received the title Righteous Among the Nations by the State of Israel in 1997.  (Gutman, 1990, 2007.  Braham, Randolph L. The Politics of Genocide: The Holocaust in Hungary.

(New York: Columbia University Press, 1981), pp. 717-718, 744, 795, 832-833, 862, 881, 914, 955, 967, 1015, 1034, 1051, 1067-1077, 1196, 1216-1225. Vatican (Holy See). Actes et documents du Saint-Siège relatifs à la Seconde Guerre Mondiale. 12 vols. (1966-1981). Morley, John. Vatican Diplomacy and the Jews during the Holocaust, 1939-1943. (New York: Ktav, 1980), pp. 80-81, 84, 90, 153-154. Asaf, Uri. Christian support for Jews during the Holocaust in Hungary. In Braham, Randolph L. (Ed.) Studies on the Holocaust in Hungary, pp. 65-112. (New York: Columbia University Press, 1990), p. 97. Lévai, Jenö. Black Book on the Martyrdom of Hungarian Jewry. (Central European Times Publishing, 1948), pp. 196-201, 226-227, 232-233, 304, 318-319, 354, 357-359, 364, 366-367, 371-373, 384, 397. Lévai, Jenö, translated by Frank Vajda. Raoul Wallenberg: His Remarkable Life, Heroic Battles and the Secret of his Mysterious Disappearance. (Melbourne, 1988, originally published in Hungarian in 1948), pp. 87-88, 161, 167. Morse, Arthur D. While Six Million Died: A Chronicle of American Apathy. (New York: Random House, 1967). Penkower, Monty Noam. The Jews Were Expendable: Free World diplomacy and the Holocaust.  (Chicago: University of Illinois Press, 1983), pp. 194, 200, 207. Conway, John S. “Records and documents of the Holy See relating to the Second World War.” Yad Vashem Studies, 15 (1983), 327-345. Kramer, T. D. From Emancipation to Catastrophe: The Rise and Holocaust of Hungarian Jewry. (New York: University Press of America), pp. 247-286. Lévai, Jenö. Fehér könyv, Külföldi akciók zsidók megmentésére [White Book, Foreign Actions for the Rescuing of Jews.]. (Budapest: Officina, 1946). Meszlényi, Antal (Ed.). A magyar katolikus egyház és as emberi jogok védelme [The Hungarian Roman Catholic Church and the Protection of Human Rights]. (Budapest: Stephaneum, 1947).  (Includes an essay by Monsignor Angelo Rotta.) Péterffy Gedeon, a katolikus papnevelde elöljárójának nyilatkozata a magyar katolikus egyház szerepér öl a zsidótörvények és zsidóüldözések idején [The Statement of Gedeon Péterffy, the Leader of the Catholic Seminary During the Period of the Jewish Laws and Jewish Persecutions]. (Budapest, Haladás [Progress], December 29, 1945.  (Emphasizes the rescue activities of Angelo Rotta and Gennaro Verolino.) Rotta, Angelo. “A budapesti nunciatura diplomáciai akciója a zsidók érdekében [The diplomatic campaign of the Budapest Nunciature on behalf of the Jews].” In Antal Meszlényi (Ed.), A magyar katolikus egyház és as emberi jogok védelme [The Hungarian Roman Catholic Church and the Protection of Human Rights]. (Budapest: Stephaneum, 1947), pp. 21-30.  (The rescue of Jews in Budapest by Angelo Rotta and Gennaro Verolino.) György, Ferenc. A budai Szent Erbébet-kórház legendája [The Legend of Saint Elizabeth Hospital of Buda]. (Budapest: Világ [World], 1947. (Periodical article on the rescue activities of Angelo Rotta and Gennaro Verolino.) Ujvári, Sándor. “Szabálytalan önéletrajz [An Irregular Autobiography].” Menora, February 17, 1979. (The author’s rescue activities under the auspices of Rotta and Verolino.) Fein, Helen. Accounting for Genocide. (New York: Free Press, 1979), pp. 107-110. Anger, Per. Translated by David Mel Paul and Margareta Paul. With Raoul Wallenberg in Budapest: Memories of the War Years in Hungary. (New York: Holocaust Library, 1981).)

Archbishop Angelo Giuseppe Roncalli (Pope John XXIII; Gutman, 1990)

Archbishop Angelo Giuseppe Roncalli (1881-1963), who later became Pope John XXIII, interceded with King Boris of Bulgaria on behalf of the Bulgarian Jews, and with the Turkish government on behalf of Jewish refugees who had fled to Turkey.  He also did his utmost to prevent the deportation of Greek Jews.  One of the main sources of information to the Vatican about the Holocaust was provided by Roncalli.  He provided reports about the annihilation of millions of Jews in Poland and Eastern Europe.  During the German occupation of Greece, he helped the local population and did his utmost to prevent the deportation of Greek Jews.  Roncalli issued a form of Vatican protective paper to numerous eastern European Jewish refugees in the areas of Slovakia, Yugoslavia, Hungary, Italy and France.  He also worked closely with US Ambassador Laurence Steinhardt, WRA representative Ira Hirschmann, Yishuv representative Chaim Barlas, and others in helping Jewish refugees come to Turkey.  In 1944, he was appointed Nuncio to Paris.  In 1953, he was appointed Patriarch of Venice.  In 1958, Roncalli was elected Pope.  He was responsible for instituting many of the reforms in the Catholic church, especially under his Vatican II Council.  These actions led to closer relations between Jews and Catholics.  Roncalli died in 1963. 

(Giovanni XXIII.  Il Pastore.  Corrispondenza dal 1911 al 1963 con I preti del Sacro Cuore di Bergamo. (Padova, 1982), pp. 256, 261. Della Rocca, Roberto Morozzo. “Roncalli Diplomatico in Turchia e Grecia, 1935-1944” in Cristianesimo nella Storia, VIII/2. (1987), pp. 33-72, particularly pp. 55-56, 58.  Vatican (Holy See). Actes et documents du Saint-Siège relatifs à la Seconde Guerre Mondiale. 12 vols. (1966-1981). Hoffmann, Peter. “Roncalli in the Second World War: Peace Initiatives, the Greek Famine and the Persecution of the Jews.” Journal of Ecclesiastical History, XL (1989), pp. 74-99. Rubin, Barry. Istanbul Intrigues, pp. 47-48, 93-94, 213-214. Hebblethwaite, Peter. Pope John XXIII: Shepherd of the modern world. (New York, 1985), pp. 141-143. Righi, Vittoro Ugo. Papa Giovanni sulle rive del Bosforo. (Padua, Italy, 1971).  Braham, Randolph L. The Politics of Genocide: The Holocaust in Hungary. (New York: Columbia University Press, 1981), pp. 1065, 1070.  Morley, John. Vatican Diplomacy and the Jews during the Holocaust, 1939-1943. (New York: Ktav, 1980), pp. 43, 45, 61, 91-92, 94, 122-123, 161, 206. Hirschmann, Ira A. Life Line to a Promised Land. (New York: Vanguard Press, 1946), p. 70. Rothkirchen, Livia. “Vatican Policy and the ‘Jewish Problem’ in ‘Independent’ Slovakia (1939-1945).” Yad Vashem Studies, 6 (1967), pp. 44, 50. Cahill, Thomas. Pope John XXIII. (New York: Viking, 2002), pp. 135-137. Elliott, Lawrence. I will be called John: A biography of Pope John XXIII. (New York: Reader’s Digest Press, E. P. Dutton, 1973), pp. 125-170.  Lapide, Pinchas E. Three Popes and the Jews. (New York: Hawthorn Books, 1967), pp. 31, 145-146, 150, 152, 161, 165-167, 171, 179-181, 221-222, 301, 306-353. Laqueur, Walter (Ed.) and Judith Tydor Baumel (Assoc. Ed.).  The Holocaust Encyclopedia. (New Haven: Yale University Press, 2001), p. 642. Morse, Arthur D. While Six Million Died: A Chronicle of American Apathy. (New York: Random House, 1967), pp. 335-336. Shaw, Stanford J. Turkey and the Holocaust: Turkey’s Role in Rescuing Turkish and European Jewry from Nazi Persecution, 1933-1945. (New York: New York University Press, 1993), pp. 274-279, 297. Gilbert, Martin. Auschwitz and the Allies: A Devastating Account of How the Allies Responded to the News of Hitler’s Mass Murder. (New York: Henry Holt, 1981), p. 122. Hirschmann, Ira. Caution to the Winds. (New York: David McKay Co.), pp. 179-185. Penkower, Monty Noam. The Jews Were Expendable: Free World diplomacy and the Holocaust.  (Chicago: University of Illinois Press, 1983), pp. 154, 200. Ofer, D. “The Rescue Activities of the Jewish Agency Delegation in Istanbul in 1943.” In Rescue Attempts during the Holocaust. Proceedings of the Second Yad Vashem International Historical Conference, edited by Y. Gutman and E. Zuroff, pp. 435-450. (Jerusalem, 1977). Conway, John S. “Records and documents of the Holy See relating to the Second World War.” Yad Vashem Studies, 15 (1983), 327-345. Levin, Nora. The Holocaust: The Destruction of European Jewry, 1933-1945. New York: Thomas Y. Crowell Company, 1968), pp. 544, 658, 688. Lévai, Jenö. Black Book on the Martyrdom of Hungarian Jewry. (Central European Times Publishing, 1948).  Rotkirchen, L. Hurban Yahadut Slovakyah (1961) 29f. (Eng. Pt.).  Bea, A. The Church and the Jewish People (1966).  Gilbert, A. The Vatican Council and the Jews (1968).  Friling, Tuvia, translated by Ora Cummings. Arrows in the Dark: David Ben-Gurion, the Yishuv Leadership, and Rescue Attempts during the Holocaust (Vols. 1 and 2). (Madison, WI: University of Wisconsin Press, 2005), Vol. 1 pp. 218-219, 225, Vol. 2, p. 5.)

Hungary

The Vatican Legation in Budapest was headed by Monsignor Angelo Rotta.  He was ably assisted by Father Genarro Verolino.  Some estimates are that they issued more than 15,000 Vatican protective papers.  They also maintained protected houses for Jewish refugees in Budapest.  The Nunciatura employed some Jewish Halutzim as part of their rescue operation.  György Adam, a Jewish refugee in Budapest, volunteered and appointed himself “Second Secretary of the Nunciatura.”  He worked under the supervision of Rotta and Verolino, and went on numerous rescue missions to save Jews from deportation.  On several occasions, Adam went to the deportation center of the Obuda brickyards to secure the release of Jews in order to prevent their imminent deportation.

(Braham, 1981; Levai, 1948; Gutman, 1990, 2007; Gyorgy Adam Oral History; Váradi, “Külföldi diplomáciai mentési kisérletek a budapesti zsidóságért” [Foreign Diplomatic Rescue Efforts on Behalf of the Jews of Budapest]. Medvetánc [Bear Dance], Budapest, no. 2-3 (1985): 99-110; E. Szatmári, Bericht über die Tätigkeit der neutralen Vertretungen in Budapest. [Report on the Activities of the Neutral Representstives in Budapest.];  Rotta, )

Monsignor Angelo Rotta●, see above, Sofia, Bulgaria

(Váradi, “Külföldi diplomáciai mentési kisérletek a budapesti zsidóságért” [Foreign Diplomatic Rescue Efforts on Behalf of the Jews of Budapest]. Medvetánc [Bear Dance], Budapest, no. 2-3 (1985): 99-110; E. Szatmári, Bericht über die Tätigkeit der neutralen Vertretungen in Budapest. [Reprot on the Activities of the Neutral Representstives in Budapest.]; Rotta, Angelo, “A budapesti nunciatura diplomáciai akciója a zsidók érdekében” [The Diplomatic Campaign of the Budapest Nunciature in Behalf of the Jews], in A Magyar katolikus egyház és az emberi jogok védelme [The Hungarian Catholic Church and the Protection of Human Rights], ed. Antal Meszlényi [Budapest: A Szent István Társulat, 1947], pp. 21-30.  Újváry, Sándor, “Szabálytalan önéletrajz” [Unorthodox Autobiography]. Menóra, Toronto, February 17, 1979, p. 8.  Lévai, Fehér könyv: Külföldi akciók zsidók megmentésére [White Book: Foreign Activities for the Rescuing of Jews], Budapest: Officina, n.d.  Summary Report of the Activities of the War Refugee Board with Respect to the Jews of Hungary [Washington, October 9, 1944), p. 4 [Typescript].  The report was prepared by Lawrence S. Lesser, the assistant of John W. Pehle, the head of the WRB.)

Father Gennaro Verolino●

Father Gennaro Verolino (b. 1906) was the deputy to Monsignor Angelo Rotta at the office of the Papal Nuncio in Budapest, Hungary.  Father Verolino went on numerous rescue missions in the field in support of Monsignor Rotta.  Verolino was instrumental in the establishment of the Vatican protected houses in Budapest.  Verolino supervised the many Vatican volunteers active in the rescue operations.  Verolino received the Per Anger Humanitarian Award in 2004.  Verolino was also awarded the title of Righteous Among the Nations in 2007 for his outstanding efforts to save the Jews of Budapest. 

(Élet és rodalom, Budapest (Hungarian weekly), March 22, 1985.  Braham, Randolph L. The Politics of Genocide: The Holocaust in Hungary. (New York: Columbia University Press, 1981), pp. 717-718, 744, 795, 832-833, 862, 881, 914, 955, 967, 1015, 1034, 1051, 1067-1077, 1196, 1216-1225. Vatican (Holy See). Actes et documents du Saint-Siège relatifs à la Seconde Guerre Mondiale. 12 vols. (1966-1981). Lévai, Jenö. Black Book on the Martyrdom of Hungarian Jewry. (Central European Times Publishing, 1948), pp. 196-201, 226-227, 232-233, 304, 318-319, 354, 357-359, 364, 371-373, 383-384, 387-388, 397.  See documentary Passport to Life, 2002. Conway, John S. “Records and documents of the Holy See relating to the Second World War.” Yad Vashem Studies, 15 (1983), 327-345. Kramer, T. D. From Emancipation to Catastrophe: The Rise and Holocaust of Hungarian Jewry. (New York: University Press of America), pp. 247-286. Rosenfeld, Harvey. Raoul Wallenberg, Angel of Rescue: Heroism and Torment in the Gulag. (Buffalo, NY: Prometheus Books), chapter 5. Lévai, Jenö, translated by Frank Vajda. Raoul Wallenberg: His Remarkable Life, Heroic Battles and the Secret of his Mysterious Disappearance. (Melbourne, 1988, originally published in Hungarian in 1948), pp. 87-88, 161, 167. Lévai, Jenö. Fehér könyv, Külföldi akciók zsidók megmentésére [White Book, Foreign Actions for the Rescuing of Jews.]. (Budapest: Officina, 1946). Meszlényi, Antal (Ed.). A magyar katolikus egyház és as emberi jogok védelme [The Hungarian Roman Catholic Church and the Protection of Human Rights]. (Budapest: Stephaneum, 1947).  (Includes an essay by Monsignor Angelo Rotta.) Péterffy Gedeon, a katolikus papnevelde elöljárójának nyilatkozata a magyar katolikus egyház szerepér öl a zsidótörvények és zsidóüldözések idején [The Statement of Gedeon Péterffy, the Leader of the Catholic Seminary During the Period of the Jewish Laws and Jewish Persecutions]. (Budapest, Haladás [Progress], December 29, 1945.  (Emphasizes the rescue activities of Angelo Rotta and Gennaro Verolino.) Rotta, Angelo. “A budapesti nunciatura diplomáciai akciója a zsidók érdekében [The diplomatic campaign of the Budapest Nunciature on behalf of the Jews].” In Antal Meszlényi (Ed.), A magyar katolikus egyház és as emberi jogok védelme [The Hungarian Roman Catholic Church and the Protection of Human Rights]. (Budapest: Stephaneum, 1947), pp. 21-30.  (The rescue of Jews in Budapest by Angelo Rotta and Gennaro Verolino.) György, Ferenc. A budai Szent Erbébet-kórház legendája [The Legend of Saint Elizabeth Hospital of Buda]. (Budapest: Világ [World], 1947. (Periodical article on the rescue activities of Angelo Rotta and Gennaro Verolino.) Ujvári, Sándor. “Szabálytalan önéletrajz [An Irregular Autobiography].” Menora, February 17, 1979. (The author’s rescue activities under the auspices of Rotta and Verolino.) Fein, Helen. Accounting for Genocide. (New York: Free Press, 1979), pp. 107-110. Lévai, Jenö. Zsidósors Magyarországon [Jewish Fate in Hungary]. (Budapest: Magyar Téka, 1948), p. 441. Lévai, Jenö. Fehér könyv, Külföldi akciók zsidók megmentésére [White Book, Foreign Actions for the Rescuing of Jews.]. (Budapest: Officina, 1946), pp. 144-145. Lévai, Jenö. Hungarian Jewry and the Papacy. (London: Sands and Co., 1968), pp. 39, 44. Refers to M. Rotta and to Uditore Verolino by name.  15,000 safe passes issued (only 2,500 were permitted). Anger, Per. Translated by David Mel Paul and Margareta Paul. With Raoul Wallenberg in Budapest: Memories of the War Years in Hungary. (New York: Holocaust Library, 1981).  Váradi, “Külföldi diplomáciai mentési kisérletek a budapesti zsidóságért” [Foreign Diplomatic Rescue Efforts on Behalf of the Jews of Budapest]. Medvetánc [Bear Dance], Budapest, no. 2-3 (1985): 99-110; E. Szatmári, Bericht über die Tätigkeit der neutralen Vertretungen in Budapest. [Reprot on the Activities of the Neutral Representstives in Budapest.]  Rotta, Angelo, “A budapesti nunciatura diplomáciai akciója a zsidók érdekében” [The Diplomatic Campaign of the Budapest Nunciature in Behalf of the Jews], in A Magyar katolikus egyház és az emberi jogok védelme [The Hungarian Catholic Church and the Protection of Human Rights], ed. Antal Meszlényi [Budapest: A Szent István Társulat, 1947], pp. 21-30.  Újváry, Sándor, “Szabálytalan önéletrajz” [Unorthodox Autobiography]. Menóra, Toronto, February 17, 1979, p. 8.  Lévai, Fehér könyv: Külföldi akciók zsidók megmentésére [White Book: Foreign Activities for the Rescuing of Jews], Budapest: Officina, n.d.  Summary Report of the Activities of the War Refugee Board with Respect to the Jews of Hungary [Washington, October 9, 1944), p. 4 [Typescript].  The report was prepared by Lawrence S. Lesser, the assistant of John W. Pehle, the head of the WRB.)

György (George) Adam

György Adam was a Jewish refugee who sought refuge in the Vatican embassy in Budapest.  The Papal Nuncio, Angelo Rotta, agreed to let Adam represent the Vatican office.  While there, Adam volunteered to go on missions to the Obuda brickyards to release Jews from custody.  In doing so, he was able to prevent Jews from being deported to the death camp of Auschwitz-Birkenau.  Armed with Vatican protective documents, Adam was able to release hundreds of Jews from the Obuda brickyards transit camp.  He worked with Father Gennaro Verolino, the assistant to Angelo Rotta, in rescuing Jews from death marches to the Austrian border.  On one occasion, he prevented the arrest of Admiral Horthy, the Regent of Hungary, and his family, by Nazi occupying forces.  At that time, he announced that he was the Second Secretary to the Nunciatura.  This title stuck with him throughout the war.  Adam provided testimony to Yad Vashem on behalf of Father Gennaro Verolino that enabled Father Verolino to be recognized as Righteous Among the Nations. 

(György Adam oral history testimony.  Braham, Randolph L. The Politics of Genocide: The Holocaust in Hungary. (New York: Columbia University Press, 1981).  Lévai, Jenö. Black Book on the Martyrdom of Hungarian Jewry. (Central European Times Publishing, 1948).  Rotta, 1947, pp. 21-30;  Újváry, 1979, p. 8; Lévai, White Book, n.d.)

Father Köhler

Father Köhler was a Lazarist Catholic priest.  Father Köhler, working with the Ujváry group, fought to save the lives of Jewish deportees at the Hungarian border town of Hegyeshalom. Köhler filled out blank apostolic safe-conducts for Jewish deportees and sought their release. Köhler, along with Ujváry, Kiss and Biro, fought for and obtained the release of 4,700 Jews who were put on trucks and returned to Budapest.  Father Köhler was in constant danger from the Arrow Cross party, who called him “a servant of the Jewish Pope.” 

(Vatican (Holy See). Actes et documents du Saint-Siège relatifs à la Seconde Guerre Mondiale. 12 vols. (1966-1981). Braham, Randolph L. The Politics of Genocide: The Holocaust in Hungary. (New York: Columbia University Press, 1981). Lévai, Jenö. Black Book on the Martyrdom of Hungarian Jewry. (Central European Times Publishing, 1948), pp. 373-374. Rosenfeld, Harvey. Raoul Wallenberg, Angel of Rescue: Heroism and Torment in the Gulag. (Buffalo, NY: Prometheus Books), chapter 5.  Rotta, 1947, pp. 21-30;  Újváry, 1979, p. 8; Lévai, White Book, n.d.)

volunteers: 

György Adam (Jewish), see above

Janós Antal●

Janós Antal was the Head of the Salesian house in Rákospalota.  Many Jews were protected at the house with Vatican protective papers.  For his activities, Mr. Antal was arrested but released with the intervention of Papal Nuncio Angelo Rotta.  He was awarded the title of Righteous Among the Nations in 1992.  (Asaf, 1990, p. 68.  Hetényi, Varga K. “Those Who Were Persecuted Because of the Truth.” Ecclesia, Budapest, 1985.  Rotta, 1947, pp. 21-30;  Újváry, 1979, p. 8; Lévai, White Book, n.d.)

Baroness Gizella Apor

Baroness Apor worked as a nurse in the Honvéd Tiszti Hospital. She worked with Sándor Újváry and Ference Kálló.  (Asaf, 1990, p. 69. Hetényi, Varga K. “Those Who Were Persecuted Because of the Truth.” Ecclesia, Budapest, 1985.  Braham, 1981, p. 1076. Lévai, J. “Grey Book on the Rescuing of Hungarian Jews.” Budapest: Officina, 1946.  Rotta, 1947, pp. 21-30;  Újváry, 1979, p. 8; Lévai, White Book, n.d.)

Father Ferenc Bády, Roman Catholic Priest

Father Bády gave hundreds of Jews safe conduct protective papers. He was persecuted by the Arrow Cross party.  (Asaf, 1990, p. 69. Hetényi, Varga K. “Those Who Were Persecuted Because of the Truth.” Ecclesia, Budapest, 1985.  Rotta, 1947, pp. 21-30;  Újváry, 1979, p. 8; Lévai, White Book, n.d.)

Tibor Báránszky●, secretary, manager “protected houses”

Tibor Báránszky, as a secretary in the Nunciature, was primarily responsible for safeguarding Vatican-protected buildings in the Pest international ghetto. Báránszky also distributed Vatican protective passes to Jews in the Obuda brickyards.  He also rescued Jews on the Hegyeshalom death marches.  He was awarded the title Righteous Among the Nations by the State of Israel in January 1979.  (Asaf, 1990, p. 71. Rosenfeld, Harvey. Raoul Wallenberg, Angel of Rescue: Heroism and Torment in the Gulag. (Buffalo, NY: Prometheus Books), chapter 5.  Rotta, 1947, pp. 21-30;  Újváry, 1979, p. 8; Lévai, White Book, n.d.)

Dr. Istvan Biro

Dr. Istvan Biro was a lawyer, member of the Hungarian Parliament and a volunteer worker for the International Red Cross in Budapest, Hungary, 1944-45. Biro worked with Sándor Ujváry, who worked with apostolic nuncio Angelo Rotta and his assistant, Father Gennaro Verolino.  They filled out hundreds of blank Vatican safe-conducts and distributed them to Jews at the Hungarian checkpoint in Hegyeshalom. As part of the Ujváry group, Biro faked certificates of baptism and other documents for Jews to rescue them from the Arrow Cross. They also distributed truckloads of medical supplies and food to Jews on deportations.  According to contemporary records, 4,700 Jews were returned to Budapest from deportation.  The Ujváry group was in constant danger from the Arrow Cross.  (Braham, Randolph L. The Politics of Genocide: The Holocaust in Hungary. (New York: Columbia University Press, 1991), pp. 967, 1280n78.  Rotta, 1947, pp. 21-30;  Újváry, 1979, p. 8; Lévai, White Book, n.d.)

József Eszterházy (Department of Cooperation)

József Eszterházy worked with Sándor Újváry in the Department of Cooperation in Budapest, Hungary. He also served as the Department’s liaison to the Arrow Cross Foreign Minister.  (Asaf, 1990, p. 77. Braham, 1981. Lévai, J. “Grey Book on the Rescuing of Hungarian Jews.” Budapest: Officina, 1946. Braham, Randolph L. The Politics of Genocide: The Holocaust in Hungary. (New York: Columbia University Press, 1991), pp. 1076, 1225, 1280n78.  Rotta, 1947, pp. 21-30;  Újváry, 1979, p. 8; Lévai, White Book, n.d.)

Imre Farkas (Department of Cooperation)

Imre Farkas worked with Sándor Újváry in the Department of Cooperation in Budapest, Hungary.  He was awarded the title of Righteous Among the Nations in 1996.  (Asaf, 1990, p. 77. Lévai, J. “Grey Book on the Rescuing of Hungarian Jews.” Budapest: Officina, 1946.  Braham, Randolph L. The Politics of Genocide: The Holocaust in Hungary. (New York: Columbia University Press, 1991), p. 1280n78.  Rotta, 1947, pp. 21-30;  Újváry, 1979, p. 8; Lévai, White Book, n.d.)

Dr. Zoltan Farkas (Spanish Consulate)

Dr. Zoltán Farkas worked at the Spanish consulate in Budapest, 1944-45.  He helped Spanish Minister Don Angel Sanz-Briz issue and distribute protective papers to Jews.  He also worked with Sándor Újváry in the Department of Cooperation.  (Braham, Randolph L. The Politics of Genocide: The Holocaust in Hungary. (New York: Columbia University Press, 1991), pp. 965, 1242.  Rotta, 1947, pp. 21-30;  Újváry, 1979, p. 8; Lévai, White Book, n.d.)

Father Gyula Mátyás Fehér*

Father Fehér helped distribute Vatican protective papers in Budapest.  He was imprisoned by the Arrow Cross for these activities.  (Asaf, 1990, p. 78. Hetényi, Varga K. “Those Who Were Persecuted Because of the Truth.” Ecclesia, Budapest, 1985.  Rotta, 1947, pp. 21-30;  Újváry, 1979, p. 8; Lévai, White Book, n.d.)

Major István Fehér, Hungarian Army

Major István Fehér was active in the rescue of Jews while working in the Department of Cooperation.  (Lévai, J. “Grey Book on the Rescuing of Hungarian Jews.” Budapest: Officina, 1946. Braham, Randolph L. The Politics of Genocide: The Holocaust in Hungary. (New York: Columbia University Press, 1981), p. 539.  Rotta, 1947, pp. 21-30;  Újváry, 1979, p. 8; Lévai, White Book, n.d.)

Istvan Földiák (Department of Cooperation)

István Földiák worked with Sándor Újváry in rescue activities of the Department of Cooperation. (Asaf, 1990, p. 79. Lévai, J. “Grey Book on the Rescuing of Hungarian Jews.” Budapest: Officina, 1946.  Braham, Randolph L. The Politics of Genocide: The Holocaust in Hungary. (New York: Columbia University Press, 1991), p. 1280n78.  Rotta, 1947, pp. 21-30;  Újváry, 1979, p. 8; Lévai, White Book, n.d.)

Dr. Lazló Helle (Department of Cooperation)

Dr. László Helle worked with Sándor Újváry in the Department of Cooperation.  (Asaf, 1990, p. 81. Lévai, J. “Grey Book on the Rescuing of Hungarian Jews.” Budapest: Officina, 1946.  Braham, Randolph L. The Politics of Genocide: The Holocaust in Hungary. (New York: Columbia University Press, 1991), p. 1280n78.  Rotta, 1947, pp. 21-30;  Újváry, 1979, p. 8; Lévai, White Book, n.d.)

Zoltán Horváth, Captain, Department of Cooperation

Captain Horváth saved a large number of Jewish men from deportation by enlisting them in the Hungarian labor service.  (Asaf, 1990, p. 83. Lévai, J. “Grey Book on the Rescuing of Hungarian Jews.” Budapest: Officina, 1946. Braham, Randolph L. The Politics of Genocide: The Holocaust in Hungary. (New York: Columbia University Press, 1981), p. 548.  Rotta, 1947, pp. 21-30;  Újváry, 1979, p. 8; Lévai, White Book, n.d.)

Father Géza Izay, Jesuit Priest

Father Izay worked with Vatican Nuncio Angelo Rotta in supplying Jews with Vatican protective papers.  He also helped shelter and feed Jews.  (Asaf, 1990, p. 84. Hetényi, Varga K. “Those Who Were Persecuted Because of the Truth.” Ecclesia, Budapest, 1985.  Rotta, 1947, pp. 21-30;  Újváry, 1979, p. 8; Lévai, White Book, n.d.)

Mrs. László Katona

Mrs. László Katona sent blank baptismal documents to Sándor Újváry in the Department of Cooperation.  These documents were distributed to Jewish protectees.  (Asaf, 1990, p. 85. Braham, 1981. Lévai, J. “Grey Book on the Rescuing of Hungarian Jews.” Budapest: Officina, 1946. Braham, Randolph L. The Politics of Genocide: The Holocaust in Hungary. (New York: Columbia University Press, 1981), p. 1075.  Rotta, 1947, pp. 21-30;  Újváry, 1979, p. 8; Lévai, White Book, n.d.)

Dr. Géza Kiss●

Dr. Kiss was a volunteer worker for the International Red Cross in Budapest, Hungary, 1944-45. Kiss worked with Sándor Ujváry, who worked with apostolic nuncio Angelo Rotta.  They filled out hundreds of blank Vatican safe-conducts and distributed them to Jews at the Hungarian checkpoint in Hegyeshalom. As part of the Ujváry group, Kiss faked certificates of baptism and other documents for Jews to rescue them from the Arrow Cross. They also distributed truckloads of medical supplies and food to Jews on deportations.  According to contemporary records, 4,700 Jews were returned to Budapest from deportation.  The Ujváry group was in constant danger from the Arrow Cross. Dr. Kiss was designated Righteous Among the Nations by the State of Israel in 1989.  (Asaf, Uri. Christian support for Jews during the Holocaust in Hungary. In Braham, Randolph L. (Ed.) Studies on the Holocaust in Hungary, pp. 65-112. (New York: Columbia University Press, 1990), p. 86.  Braham, Randolph L. The Politics of Genocide: The Holocaust in Hungary. (New York: Columbia University Press, 1981), pp. 841, 1076.  Rotta, 1947, pp. 21-30;  Újváry, 1979, p. 8; Lévai, White Book, n.d.)

Milán Kosztics (Department of Cooperation)

Milán Kosztics worked under the auspices of the Department of Cooperation as a liaison for Sándor Újváry.  (Asaf, 1990, pp. 87-88. Braham, 1991. Lévai, J. “Grey Book on the Rescuing of Hungarian Jews.” Budapest: Officina, 1946.  Rotta, 1947, pp. 21-30;  Újváry, 1979, p. 8; Lévai, White Book, n.d.)

Father Jakob Raile●, (Jesuit), head, monstary, Budapest (Gutman, 2007; Rotta, 1947, pp. 21-30;  Újváry, 1979, p. 8; Lévai, White Book, n.d.)

Margit Sterneder● (Rotta, 1947, pp. 21-30;  Újváry, 1979, p. 8; Lévai, White Book, n.d.)

Géza Tolnay

Géza Tolnay worked with Sándor Újváry helping Jewish refugees as a volunteer for the International Red Cross.  (Braham, Randolph L. The Politics of Genocide: The Holocaust in Hungary. (New York: Columbia University Press, 1991), p. 1280n78.  Rotta, 1947, pp. 21-30;  Újváry, 1979, p. 8; Lévai, White Book, n.d.)

Sándor Újváry● (Department of Cooperation)

Sándor György Ujváry was a Budapest journalist of Jewish ancestry.  Ujváry was a major rescuer and organizer for the International Red Cross in Budapest, Hungary, 1944-45. He was one of the most successful rescuers of Jews in Budapest, especially rescuing Jews from the death marches to Hegyeshalom.  Ujváry worked with apostolic nuncio Angelo Rotta and took hundreds of blank Vatican safe-conducts, along with truck convoys of medical supplies and food, to Jews on deportations.  Further, Ujváry faked certificates of baptism and other documents for Jews to rescue them from the Arrow Cross. Ujváry was declared Righteous Among the Nations in 1985. 

(Braham, Randolph L. The Politics of Genocide: The Holocaust in Hungary. (New York: Columbia University Press, 1981), pp. 841, 998, 1075-1076. Lévai, J. “Hungarian Jewry and the Papacy.” London: Sands and Company, 1968. Lévai, J. “Grey Book on the Rescuing of Hungarian Jews.” Budapest: Officina, 1946. Lévai, Jenö. Black Book on the Martyrdom of Hungarian Jewry. (Central European Times Publishing, 1948), pp. 371-374. Ben-Tov, Arieh. Facing the Holocaust in Budapest: The International Committee of the Red Cross and the Jews in Hungary, 1943-1945. (Boston: Martinus Nijhoff Publishers, 1988). Rosenfeld, Harvey. Raoul Wallenberg, Angel of Rescue: Heroism and Torment in the Gulag. (Buffalo, NY: Prometheus Books), chapter 5.  Rotta, 1947, pp. 21-30;  Újváry, 1979, p. 8; Lévai, White Book, n.d.)

Rózsi Vájkay and Éva Vájkay, Head of the Safe Conduct Office in the Nunciature of Angelo Rotta

Rózsi Vájkay was the Head of the Safe Conduct Office in Monsignor Angelo Rotta’s Nunciature in Budapest, Hungary.  Éva Vájkay, who had received a safe conduct herself, volunteered to issue certificates of protection to all Jews who submitted baptismal papers, without checking whether they were authentic. Due to their connections to the neutral legations and consulates, the Vájkay’s were extremely effective in their rescue operations.  (Braham, Randolph L. The Politics of Genocide: The Holocaust in Hungary. (New York: Columbia University Press, 1981), p. 1075. Asaf, 1990, p. 106. Sztehló, Gábor. “In God’s Hand.” (Budapest: A Magyarországi Evangelikus Egyház Sajtóosztálya, 1986).  Rotta, 1947, pp. 21-30;  Újváry, 1979, p. 8; Lévai, White Book, n.d.)

Tibor Verebély, worked with Sandor Ujvary (Braham, 1991, p. 1280n78)

Romania

Monsignor Andrea Cassulo

Monsignor Andrea Cassulo was the Vatican nuncio in Bucharest, Romania.  Cassulo was appointed Nuncio in June 1936.  He was 72 years old.  In 1941, he began protecting baptized Jews in Romania.  He was responsible for protesting the deportation of Romanian Jews in 1942 and 1943.  He was tireless in his actions and his work was successful in saving Jewish lives.  He protested the deportations to the Romanian government and Nazi officials.  Cassulo worked closely with leaders of the Jewish community, including Chief Rabbi Dr. Alexander Safran and Swiss diplomat Rene de Weck.  Cassulo expedited relief efforts for deported Jews and served on committees establishing Jewish orphanages in Transnistria.  Cassulo remained in Bucharest until 1947, when he was forced to leave by the Communists.  He received many post-war commendations from the Jewish community.  He died in 1952 at age 83.  (Vatican (Holy See). Actes et documents du Saint-Siège relatifs à la Seconde Guerre Mondiale. 12 vols. (1966-1981). Morley, John. Vatican Diplomacy and the Jews during the Holocaust, 1939-1943. (New York: Ktav, 1980), pp. 25-47, 153, 199, 202, 216-220. Gutman, Yisrael (Ed.). Encyclopedia of the Holocaust, 4 vols. (New York: Macmillan, 1990), pp. 306, 1297-1298, 1322. Vago, Bela. “Political and Diplomatic Activities for the Rescue of the Jews of Northern Transylvania.” Yad Vashem Studies, 6 (1967), pp. 71-72. Safran, Alexandre. “The Rulers of Fascist Rumania Whom I Had to Deal With.” Yad Vashem Studies, 6 (1967), pp. 179-180. Reitlinger, Gerald. The Final Solution: The Attempt to Exterminate the Jews of Europe, 1939-1945. (New York: The Beechhurst Press, 1953), p. 404. Lavi, Theodore. The Vatican’s Endeavours on Behalf of Roumanian Jewry during World War II. (Jerusalem: Yad Vashem, 1961), pp. 1333-1346. Levin, Nora. The Holocaust: The Destruction of European Jewry, 1933-1945. New York: Thomas Y. Crowell Company, 1968), pp. 567, 579, 586. Pawlikowski, John T. The Catholic response to the Holocaust: Institutional perspectives.  In Berenbaum, Michael, and Abraham J. Peck (Eds.). The Holocaust and History: The Known, the Unknown, the Disputed, and the Reexamined, pp. 551-565. (Bloomington, Indiana: Indiana University Press, 1998), pp. 557-559.  Herzer, 1989, p. 236. Butnaru, I. C. The Silent Holocaust: Romania and its Jews. Lavi, T. Rumanian Jewry in World War II: Fight for Survival. (Jerusalem, 1965). Hebrew.  Lavi, T. (Ed.). Rumania, Vol. 1.  In Pinkas Hakehillot, Encyclopaedia of Jewish Communities. (Jerusalem, 1969). Hebrew. Conway, John S. “Records and documents of the Holy See relating to the Second World War.” Yad Vashem Studies, 15 (1983), 327-345. Lavi, T. “Documents on the struggle of Rumanian Jewry for its rights during the Second World War.” Yad Vashem Studies, 4 (1960), 310. Lapide, Pinchas E. Three Popes and the Jews. (New York: Hawthorn Books, 1967), pp. 163-169.)

Slovakia

Monsignor Giuseppe Burzio

Monsignor Giuseppe Burzio was the Papal Nuncio in Bratislava, Slovakia, 1940-1945.  Burzio was 39 at the time of his posting.  On October 27, 1941, Burzio sent a report to the Holy See that Jews were being systematically murdered.  He further reported from Pressburg (Bratislava) of the imminent deportation of 20,000 Slovakian Jews.  In March 1942. he sent a new report about the deportation of Slovak Jews to Poland.  In the report, he stated that this deportation meant certain death.  Burzio’s protests of the mistreatment and deportation of Jews were addressed to Slovakian Prime Minister Tuka.  Ironically, Tuka was an ordained Catholic priest.  Burzio sent a copy of the Auschwitz Protocols to the Vatican in Rome in May 1944.  As a result, in June 1942, Prime Minister Tuka asked Wislicency for information regarding the deportation of Slovakian Jews to the General Government in Poland.  Wislicency denied the actions.  Burzio was responsible for implementing the rescue of a number of Slovakian Jews.  After the war, Burzio served as Nuncio to Bolivia from 1946-1950 and to Cuba from 1950-1954.  He left Vatican diplomatic service.  He became a canon of the Lateran Basilica in Rome.  He died in 1966. (Vatican (Holy See). Actes et documents du Saint-Siège relatifs à la Seconde Guerre Mondiale. 12 vols. (1966-1981). Morley, John. Vatican Diplomacy and the Jews during the Holocaust, 1939-1943. (New York: Ktav, 1980), pp. 73-91, 94-100, 117, 135, 199, 202, 226-233, 239-246. Braham, Randolph L. The Politics of Genocide: The Holocaust in Hungary. (New York: Columbia University Press, 1981), pp. 710, 714, 937, 1064, 1067. Rothkirchen, Livia. “Vatican Policy and the ‘Jewish Problem’ in ‘Independent’ Slovakia (1939-1945).” Yad Vashem Studies, 6 (1967), pp. 36-52. Pawlikowski, John T. The Catholic response to the Holocaust: Institutional perspectives.  In Berenbaum, Michael, and Abraham J. Peck (Eds.). The Holocaust and History: The Known, the Unknown, the Disputed, and the Reexamined, pp. 551-565. (Bloomington, Indiana: Indiana University Press, 1998), pp. 555-558. Gutman, Yisrael (Ed.). Encyclopedia of the Holocaust, 4 vols. (New York: Macmillan, 1990), pp. 122, 1137, 1183. Rozett, Robert and Shmuel Spector. Encyclopedia of the Holocaust. (Jerusalem: Yad Vashem, 2000), p. 357. Conway, John S. “Records and documents of the Holy See relating to the Second World War.” Yad Vashem Studies, 15 (1983), 327-345. Lapide, Pinchas E. Three Popes and the Jews. (New York: Hawthorn Books, 1967), pp. 138-139, 142, 144, 147.)

Spain, Madrid

Monsignore Gaetano Cicognani

Monsignore-Archbishop Gaetano Cicognani, the Papal Nuncio in Madrid, had given orders to issue protective papers to any Jew in southern France “who somehow could prove his Spanish affiliation, even in the most embryonic manner.”  His efforts were unsuccessful due to the surrender of the Italian government on September 8, 1943.  (Waagenaar, Sam. The Pope’s Jews. (La Salle, IL: Open Court Publishers, 1974), p. 382. Vatican (Holy See). Actes et documents du Saint-Siège relatifs à la Seconde Guerre Mondiale. 12 vols. (1966-1981). Morley, John. Vatican Diplomacy and the Jews during the Holocaust, 1939-1943. (New York: Ktav, 1980), p. 66.)

Switzerland

Monsignor Philippe Bernardini, Papal Nuncio and Dean of the Diplomatic Corps, Bern, Switzerland, 1942-45

Monsignor Philippe Bernardini, Papal Nuncio in Bern, Switzerland, repeatedly intervened on behalf of Jewish refugees who were stranded in Switzerland after fleeing Germany and Nazi occupied countries.  This prevented them from being deported from Switzerland during the war.  Bernardini placed couriers of the Vatican diplomatic service at the disposal of Jewish relief agencies.  They were thus able to issue visas through Ambassador Lados and Dr. Julius Kuhl in countries that had severed diplomatic relations with Poland.  Bernardini personally intervened on behalf of the Jews of Slovakia.  In addition, Bernardini helped Jewish relief agencies to save Jews by acquiring and distributing fictitious South American passports.  Bernardini also worked with the Red Cross to obtain recognition of these documents by South American governments.  Bauer, Yehuda.

(American Jewry and the Holocaust. (Detroit: Wayne State University Press, 1981), p. 289.  Friedenson, Joseph, and David Kranzler, forward by Julius Kuhl. Heroine of Rescue: The Incredible Story of Recha Sternbuch Who Saved Thousands from the Holocaust. (Brooklyn, NY: Mesorah Publications, 1984). Vatican (Holy See). Actes et documents du Saint-Siège relatifs à la Seconde Guerre Mondiale. 12 vols. (1966-1981). Morley, John. Vatican Diplomacy and the Jews during the Holocaust, 1939-1943. (New York: Ktav, 1980), pp. 31-32, 35, 40, 60-61, 67-68, 79-80, 84, 117, 135-136, 140-142, 203, 212. Rothkirchen, Livia. “Vatican Policy and the ‘Jewish Problem’ in ‘Independent’ Slovakia (1939-1945).” Yad Vashem Studies, 6 (1967), pp. 40. Kranzler, David. Thy Brother’s Blood: The Orthodox Jewish Response During the Holocaust. (Brooklyn, NY: Mesorah, 1987), pp. 190, 197-199, 202-203. Penkower, Monty Noam. The Jews Were Expendable: Free World diplomacy and the Holocaust.  (Chicago: University of Illinois Press, 1983), pp. 63, 249, 252, 365n.7. Pawlikowski, John T. The Catholic response to the Holocaust: Institutional perspectives.  In Berenbaum, Michael, and Abraham J. Peck (Eds.). The Holocaust and History: The Known, the Unknown, the Disputed, and the Reexamined, pp. 551-565. (Bloomington, Indiana: Indiana University Press, 1998), p. 557. Conway, John S. “Records and documents of the Holy See relating to the Second World War.” Yad Vashem Studies, 15 (1983), 327-345.  Tittmann, Harold H., Jr., Harold H. Tittman III (Ed.). Inside the Vatican of Pius XII: The Memoir of an American Diplomat During World War II. (New York: Image Books Doubleday, 2004), pp. 36-37.)

Vice Consul Julius Kuhl (Polish Jew), Polish Consul in Bern, Switzerland, 1938-45

Consul Dr. Julius Kuhl was born to a prominent Jewish family in Sanok, Poland.  Kuhl issued thousands of protective visas and passports to Jews from the Polish embassy in Bern, Switzerland, 1938-45.  Kuhl worked with help and encouragement from Polish ambassador Alexander Lados.  Both Kuhl and Lados gave visas to a number of Jewish relief and rescue agencies working out of Europe.  These precious papers enabled Jews to remain in Switzerland or emigrate to the United States, Canada, South America, Africa, Palestine and other countries.  (Friedenson, Joseph, and David Kranzler, forward by Julius Kuhl. Heroine of Rescue: The Incredible Story of Recha Sternbuch Who Saved Thousands from the Holocaust. (Brooklyn, NY: Mesorah Publications, 1984). Kranzler, David. Thy Brother’s Blood: The Orthodox Jewish Response During the Holocaust. (Brooklyn, NY: Mesorah, 1987), pp. 195, 200-203. Penkower, Monty Noam. The Jews Were Expendable: Free World diplomacy and the Holocaust.  (Chicago: University of Illinois Press, 1983), pp. 66-68, 78, 190, 249, 263, 265n.7, 368n.46.)

Recha Sternbuch

The Sternbuch’s were Orthodox Jews living in Bern, Switzerland.  They ran a major Jewish rescue operation out of Switzerland throughout the war.  Thousands of Jews were saved by the Sternbuch’s.  Recha Sternbuch was arrested for her activities by Swiss authorities and was later released from jail.  They worked with Chinese Consul General Dr. Feng Shan Ho, from his office in Vienna, and with Polish Ambassador Alexander Lados and his assistant Julius Kuhl, from their office in Bern.  (Isaac Sternbuch:  Penkower, Monty Noam. The Jews Were Expendable: Free World diplomacy and the Holocaust.  (Chicago: University of Illinois Press, 1983), pp. 68-71, 190, 201, 204, 209-210, 253, 247, 250-251, 255, 257-258, 261, 287, 365n.13. Kranzler, David. Thy Brother’s Blood: The Orthodox Jewish Response During the Holocaust. (Brooklyn: Mesorah, 1987). Friedenson, Joseph, and David Kranzler, forward by Julius Kuhl. Heroine of Rescue: The Incredible Story of Recha Sternbuch Who Saved Thousands from the Holocaust. (Brooklyn, NY: Mesorah Publications, 1984).)

Turkey

Archbishop Angelo Giuseppe Roncalli (later Pope John XXIII), see above (Sofia, Bulgaria)

USA

Archbishop Amleto Cicognani

Archbishop Amleto Cicognani was the Apostolic Delegate to the United States.  He forwarded a request from Rabbi Stephen Wise for an appeal for intervention to help Jews in Bucharest, Romania.  During World War II, he transmitted a number of requests to the Vatican to intervene on behalf of persecuted Jews in Nazi occupied territories.  He also worked with Nahum Goldman of the World Jewish Congress.  He showed personal initiative and great sympathy on behalf of Jews.  (Morley, John. Vatican Diplomacy and the Jews during the Holocaust, 1939-1943. (New York: Ktav, 1980), pp. 39, 63-64, 67, 93, 97, 137, 140-141, 144-145, 152, 157-158, 175-177, 190.  Tittmann, Harold H., Jr., Harold H. Tittman III (Ed.). Inside the Vatican of Pius XII: The Memoir of an American Diplomat During World War II. (New York: Image Books Doubleday, 2004), pp. 47-48, 63, 77, 104, 144, 149-153, 158.)

Yugoslavia

Abbot Giuseppe Ramiro Marcone

Monsignor Giuseppe Ramiro Marcone, the Vatican representative in Zagreb, intervened via diplomatic channels to halt deportations of Jews.  His efforts initially were to no avail.  (Carpi, Daniel. "The Rescue of Jews in the Italian Zone of Occupied Croatia." In Rescue Attempts During the Holocaust. Proceedings of the Second Yad Vashem International Historical Conference, edited by Y. Gutman & E. Zuroff. (Jerusalem, 1977), pp. 477, 490. Morley, John. Vatican Diplomacy and the Jews during the Holocaust, 1939-1943. (New York: Ktav, 1980), pp. 149-165, 202.  Tittmann, Harold H., Jr., Harold H. Tittman III (Ed.). Inside the Vatican of Pius XII: The Memoir of an American Diplomat During World War II. (New York: Image Books Doubleday, 2004), p. 51.)

Vatican City

Sir Francis de’Arcy Godolphin Osborne, British Minister to the Holy See, 1942

Sir Francis de’Arcy Godolphin Osborne was the British Minister to the Holy See in 1942.  In December 1942, the British government tried to get the Vatican to condemn the Nazi genocide.  Osborne wrote to the Vatican Secretary of State:  “A policy of silence in regard to such offenses against the conscience of the world must necessarily involve a renunciation of moral leadership and a consequent atrophy of the influence and authority of the Vatican” (Gutman, 1990, p. 1137).  Osborne tried again in January 1943 and failed to get a Vatican statement condemning Nazi war crimes against Jews and others.  (Leboucher, Fernande. Translated by J. F. Bernard. Incredible Mission. (Garden city, NY: Doubleday, 1969). Morley, John. Vatican Diplomacy and the Jews during the Holocaust, 1939-1943. (New York: Ktav, 1980), pp. 58, 65, 82, 87, 118-119, 143-144, 157, 173, 175-176. Michaelis, Meir. Mussolini and the Jews: German-Italian Relations and the Jewish Question in Italy, 1922-1945. (Oxford: Clarendon Press, 1978), pp. 342-344, 396, 424. Gutman, Yisrael (Ed.). Encyclopedia of the Holocaust, 4 vols. (New York: Macmillan, 1990), p. 1137.  Tittmann, Harold H., Jr., Harold H. Tittman III (Ed.). Inside the Vatican of Pius XII: The Memoir of an American Diplomat During World War II. (New York: Image Books Doubleday, 2004), pp. 11, 22-23, 53, 75, 81-82, 89-90, 100-101, 128, 134, 145-148, 154, 166, 167, 169, 177-178, 181-182, 188-190.)DELASEM (Delegazione Assistenza Emigranti Ebrei), Southern France and Rome, Italy

Church of England – Episcopal Church

Archbishop of Canterbury William Temple

Bishop George Bell Chichester

Church of the Brethren, Brethren Service Committee, Elgin, IL, USA, established 1939 (Romanofsky, Social Srvice Organizations, pp. 191-195.  Sappington, R.E., Brethren Social Policy 1908-1958. Elgin, IL: Brethren Press, 1961, pp. 102-103.  Church of the Brethren Archives.)

Committee on Foreign Relief Appeals in the Churches, established 1939, USA (American Committee for Christian German Refugees, 1945; Davie, 1947; Genizi, 1983; Gutman, 1990, pp. 32-33; Nawyn, 1981; Ross, 1981)

Confessing Church (Bekennende Kirche) – Protestant, Germany

Dierich Bonhoeffer

Pastor Dr. Heinrich Grüber, Berlin

Pastor Theophill Wurm, Evangelical Bishop, Wittenberg



Dutch Reformed Church, Heerlen, The Netherlands (Protestant)



Eastern Orthodox Church

Metropolitan Andrej Szeptyckyj

Belarus

Father Vladimir Imshenik●

Father Konstantin Komar●

Sister Nastya Yagor Kapusta

Sister Maria Nadezhda Semenouich

Romania

Patriarch Nikodem, Romania

Metropolitan Tit Simedrea, Romania

Russia

Father Dimitri Klepinin, France

Slovakia

Father Peter Dudinsky●

Father Michal Maslej●

Ukraine

Father Antin Navolsky

Father Nikanor

Episcopal Committee for European Refugees, established 1938 (“Call to Aid German Refugees.” The Spirit of Missions, 104 (Mar. 19, 1939): 24.  Hertz, “Joint and Concurrent.”  Romanofsky, Social Service Organizations, pp. 286-290.)

Federal Council of Churches, USA, established 1908

(American Committee for Christian German Refugees, 1945; Davie, 1947; Genzini, 1983, pp. 96-136; Gutman, 1990, pp. 32-33; Nawyn, 1981, pp. 159-181; Ross, 1981; Prespyterian Historical Society, records of the Federal Council, 1908-50)

Samuel McCrea Cavert, General Secretary, member PACPR

Free Germany (Freies Deutschland)

The Good Shepard Committee Rescue Network (Protestant; A Jó Pásztor Bizottsag), Budapest, Hungary, established October 1942

The official name of the committee was “The Good Shepherd Missionary Subcommittee of the Universal Convent of the Reformed Church of Hungary” (A Magyarországi Református Egyház Egyetemes Konventje Jó Pásztor Missziói Albizottsága).  It was sponsored by the Universal Convent of the Reformed Church of Hungary.  It worked with Hungarian Evangelical Church and the Jewish Council.  The Committee set up Protestant Orphans’ Home in Noszvaj and Budapest.  It hid and sheltered Jews in Budapest during Arrow Cross rule, after October 1944 and distributed protective papers. 

(Bereczky, Hungarian Protestantism, pp. 19, 43,46; Braham, 1991, pp. 492-493, 494, 897, 1187, 1197-1198; Gutman, 1990; Gutman, 2007, p. 201, 249, 232-233, 261; Levai, Szürke könyv, pp. 86-87; Munkácsi, Hogyan történt?, pp. 151-154)

Reverend József Éliás (former Jew), leader (Braham, 1991, pp. 492-493, 1187, 1197-1199, 1203, 1362)

Reverend Gábor Jenö Sztehló●, in charge of labor servicemen and converts (Braham, 1991, p. 1187; Gutman, 2007)

Reverend Gyula Muraközy, director, Committee (Braham, 1991, p. 1197)

Dr. Imre Kadar, secretary, Committee (Braham, 1991, p. 1197)

Deacon Emil Hajos (Braham, 1991, p. 1197)

Reverend Dr. Károly Dobos●, director (Braham, 1991, p. 1197; Gutman, 2007)

Mrs. Károly Dobos● (Ilona; Gutman, 2007)

Emil Koren● (Lutheran; Gutman, 2007)

Magda Koren● (Gutman, 2007)

Dr. Ferenc Benkö  (Braham, 1991, p. 1197)

Andor Borbas

Reverend Gyula Nägy(Braham, 1991, p. 1198)

Reverend Sándor Boros(Braham, 1991, p. 1198)

Irén Homonny●, Department A, ICRC (Gutman, 2007)

Mária Homonny●, Department A, ICRC (Gutman, 2007)

Andras Keken●, Lutheran minister, Deak Square Church, Budapest (Gutman, 2007)

Ilona Tukka●, YMCA (Gutman, 2007, p. 333)

Worked with:

The Holy Cross Society (Braham, 1991, p. 1197)

The Jewish Council (Braham, 1991, p. 1197)

Miksa Domonkos

International Committee of the Red Cross, Budapest, Section B

Reverend Gabor Sztehló (Braham, 1991, p. 1197)

Dr. János Petery (Braham, 1991, p. 1197)

Professor Papp (Braham, 1991, p. 1197)

International Committee of the Red Cross, Budapest, Section A

Otto Komoly+* (Braham, 1991, p. 1197)

Swedish Red Cross

Valdemar Langlet (Braham, 1991, p. 1197)

Nina Langlet (Braham, 1991, p. 1197)

Alexander Kasser

Greek Orthodox Church

Greece


Metropolitan (Archbishop) Theophilos Damaskinos, Head of the Greek Orthodox Church, Athens, Greece; worked with German diplomat Helmut Sheffel

Metropolitan Joachin Alexopoulos●, Bishop of Volos

Metropolitan (Bishop) Demetriou Chrysostomos●, Zakinthos (Zante)

Metropolitan Georgios Alexiadus Guenadios●, Thessaloniki, Greece

Individuals:

Father Joaquim Alexopolos●

Father Demetriou Chrysostomos●

Father Throphilos Damaskinos●

Father Guenadios (Giorgios Alexiadis)●

Hungary

Father Jozsef Csedrik●, Duszina, Munkacevo, Hungary (Greek Orthodox)

Serbia

Father Svetozar Milenkovic●, Raska, Serbia (Greek Orthodox)

Lutheran Church

Denmark


Pastor Poul Borchsenius, Protestant Chaplain

Bishop H. Fugslang-Damsaard, Lutheran Bishop of Copenhagen

Pastor Arnold & Karen Gunners

Pastor Visser’t Hooft (Ecumenical Church Council)

Pastor Kjeldgaard Jensen

Pastor Hans Kildeby, Lutheran Minister, Orslov, Denmark

Pastor Krohn, Vicar of Lynby, Copenhagen

Kaj Munk, clergyman

Dean Pastor Johannes Nordentoft, clergyman

Bishop Plum and Wife, Lutheran Bishop at Nykøbing, Island of Falster, Denmark

Pastor Henry Rasmussen, Lutheran Minister

Lutheran Church’s Collection for Non-Aryan Exiles

Lutheran Council in the USA
, Lutheran Immigration and Refugee Service, New York, NY, USA, established 1938

(Hertz, “Joint and Concurrent.”  Romanofsky, Social Service Organizations, pp. 396-399.  Lutheran Council in the USA, Archives of Cooperative Lutheranism.)

Mennonite Central Committee (MCC), United States, active in France

Protestant Church

Belgium

Calvinist Women’s Association (Gereformeerde Vrouwenvereniging), Belgium (Moore, 2010, pp. 234-235)

Helped people in the Netherlands go underground to avoid conscripted (compulsory) labor service imposed by the German occupation government in Belgium.

Helena Theodora Kuipers-Rietberg (Moore, 2010,pp. 234-235)

Father Joseph Peeters Rescue Network, Comblain-au-Pont, Belgium (YV M31/1362a [Joseph Peeters]; Lombard)

Father Joseph Peeters●+*, Curé of Comblain-auPort, Belgium, secretary, local Winter Help.  Hid 400 Jews on local farms, provided Jews with papers.  Arrested in December 1942.  Executed in Liège, Belgium, on August 31, 1944.

Notre Maison [Our House] Children’s Home, Uccle, Brussels

Pastor Zrphirin Bertiaux●

Pastor Ernest Charensol●

Pastor Alexandre Doulière

Emilie Doulière●

Denmark

Danish Quaker Center, Denmark (Goldberger, p. 5)

The Danish Quaker Center provided money and aid to Jewish refugees in Denmark.  The German occupation government forced it to close April 1941.

England

British Friends Service Committee (Moore, 2010, p. 139)

Church of England (Episcopal), lobbied British government to admit more Jewish refugees to England after Nazi takeover of Germany and Austria (Gutman, 1990, p. 295)

Church leadership:

William Temple, Archbishop of Canterbury

George Bill, Bishop of Chichester

Committee for Non-Aryan Christians, Great Britain, est 1933

France

National Council of the Reformed Church of France

Pastor Marc Boegner●, president of the Protestant Church in France, head of CIMADE, Amitié Chrétienne (Christian Friendship), awarded Righteous Among the Nations title June 21, 1988 (Yad Vashem Archives; Gutman, 2003, pp. 89-90, 195, 268; Hallie, 1979, p. 43; Moore, 2010, pp. 101, 128-129, 131; Zuccotti, 1993, pp. 58-59, 62, 146, 150)

Pastor Marc Boegner Rescue Network, Southern France, worked with OSE, see also CIMADE, Amitié Chrétienne (Christian Friendship), and Le Chambon-sur-Lignon (Fabre, 1970; Gutman, 2003, pp. 89-90, 268-269; Zuccotti, 1993, pp. 58-59, 62, 146, 150)

Pastor Marc Boegner●, president of the Protestant Church in France, head of CIMADE, Amitié Chrétienne (Christian Friendship), awarded Righteous Among the Nations title June 21, 1988 (Yad Vashem Archives; Fabre, 1970; Gutman, 2003, pp. 89-90, 195, 268; Hallie, 1979, p. 43; Moore, 2010, pp. 101, 128-129, 131; Zuccotti, 1993, pp. 58-59, 62, 146, 150)

Jules Hébard●, La Salle Village, Department of Gard, France, worked with Reverend Saint-Martin, hid Jewish girl in their home, awarded Righteous Among the Nations title December 9, 1996 (Yad Vashem Archives; Gutman, 2003, p. 300)

Odette Hébard●, wife of Jules Hébard, La Salle Village, Department of Gard, France, hid Jewish girl in their home, awarded Righteous Among the Nations title December 9, 1996 (Yad Vashem Archives; Gutman, 2003, p. 300)

Pastor Paul Brunel●, head of the Protestant Church, Nîmes, France, awarded Righteous Among the Nations title January 5, 1984 (Yad Vashem Archives; Gutman, 2003, pp.115-116)

Mme Brunel●, wife of Pastor Paul Brunel, awarded Righteous Among the Nations title January 5, 1984 (Yad Vashem Archives; Gutman, 2003, pp. 115-116)

Cardinal Pierre Marie Gerlier●, head of the Catholic Church, Lyons Diocese, honorary president, Amitié Chrétienne (Christian Friendship), awarded Righteous Among the Nations title July 15, 1981 (Yad Vashem Archives (Gutman, 2003, pp. 89-90, 268, 289; Hallie, 1979, pp. 41-42; Zuccotti, 1993, pp. 62, 72, 74, 139, 141, 146, 147, 149, 150, 297n75)

Pastor (Reverend) André Morel● (CIMADE), Gurs camp, Le Chambon-sur-Lignon, worked with OSE, awarded Righteous Among the Nations title September 23, 1990 (Yad Vashem Archives; Fabre, 1970; Gutman, 2003, p. 402)

Jean Guillaud, MD●, St.-Jean-en-Royen, Department of Drôme, France, hid, protected and sheltered Jews in their home, awarded Righteous Among the Nations title June 10, 1996 (Yad Vashem Archives (Gutman, 2003, pp. 289-290)

Renee Guillaud●, wife of Jean Guillaud, St.-Jean-en-Royen, Department of Drôme, France, hid, protected and sheltered Jews in their home, awarded Righteous Among the Nations title June 10, 1996 (Yad Vashem Archives; Gutman, 2003, pp. 289-290)

Pierre Ogier●, Lyons, France, hid young Jewish girl, Liselotte Boettigeimer, in their home, awarded Righteous Among the Nations title March 13, 1997 (Yad Vashem Archives; Fabre, 1970; Gutman, 2003, pp. 413-414)

Henriette Ogier●, Lyons, France, wife of Pierre Ogier, hid young Jewish girl, Liselotte Boettigeimer, in their home,  awarded Righteous Among the Nations title March 13, 1997 (Yad Vashem Archives; Fabre, 1970; Gutman, 2003, pp. 413-414)

Reverend Saint-Martin (Gutman, 2003)

General Pierre Robert de Saint-Vincent●, Military Governor of Lyons, France, Patron of Amitié Chrétienne (Christian Friendship), member Armée Secrète, awarded Righteous Among the Nations title June 24, 1993 (Yad Vashem Archives; Gutman, 2003, pp. 472-473)

Jean Marie Soutou●+, Lyons, France, founding member of Amitié Chrétienne (Christian Friendship) with Father Pierre Chailet, awarded Righteous Among the Nations title March 22, 1994 (Yad Vashem Archives; Gutman, 2003, pp. 268, 506)

Madeleine Barot●, CIMADE, awarded Righteous Among the Nations title March 28, 1988 (Yad Vashem Archives; Fabre, 1970; Gutman, 2003, pp. 57, 402; Hallie, 1979, p. 195; Moore, 2010, pp. 125-127, 128; Zuccotti, 1993, pp. 68-69, 71-72, 228, 230, 231, 246)

Catholic Workers Youth, Jeunesse Ouvrière Chrétienne (JOC), France (Moore, 2010, pp. 118, 130, 286-287)

Abbé (Father) Folliet+*, chaplain (JOC), Haute-Savoie, Cloisters, Annecy (Moore, 2010, p. 130; Zuccotti, 1993, p. 248)

Abbé (Father) Jean-Joseph Rosay●+*, Curé at Douvaine, Douvaine Rescue Network, awarded Righteous Among the Nations title (Yad Vashem Archives; Gutman, 2003, pp. 65-66, 337, 437; Moore, 2010, p. 130)

Joseph Lancon●+*, Douvaine Rescue Network, awarded Righteous Among the Nations title (Yad Vashem Archives; Gutman, 2003, p. 337; Moore, 2010, p. 130)

Thérèse (Nuery) Lancon●, Douvaine Rescue Network, awarded Righteous Among the Nations title (Yad Vashem Archives; Gutman, 2003, p. 337)

François Périllat+*, Douvaine Rescue Network (Gutman, 2003, p. 337; Moore, 2010, p. 130)

Committee for Action on Behalf of Refugees (Comité d’Inter Mouvement après des Evacues; CIMADE), France, established 1939, see also Archdiocese of Toulouse, France; Diocese of Nice, France; Pères de Sion, France; American Friends Service Committee (AFSC); Young Men’s Christian Association (YMCA); Swiss Children’s Rescue Organization; Czech Aid; Douvaine Escape Network; Le Chambon-Sur-Lignon; Christian Friendship

CIMADE was part of, and sponsored by, the World Council of Churches.  CIMADE maintained four stations: Marseilles, Vabre, Pomeyol and Le-Chambon-sur-Lignon.  CIMADE had teams in the following French concentration camps: Rivesaltes, Brens, Le Récébédou, Nexon and Gurs.  They provided aid and relief to prisoners.  They also aided prisoners to gain release from the camps.

(YV M31/3830 [Barot]; YV M31/3369 [Henri Mannen]; YV M31/2698 [Marc Boegner]; Barot, 1968; Delpard, 1993; Fabre, 1970; Fayol, 1990; Gutman, 1990; Gutman, 2003, pp. 89-90, 268; Hallie, 1979; Lazare, p. 53; Moore, 2010; Mouchon, 1970; Poliakov, 1946; Rayski, 2005; Ryan, 1996, pp. 11, 160, 220; Zuccotti, 1993, pp. 5, 68, 72, 75, 120, 228, 229, 248; René Nodot, “Résistance non violente, 1940-1944,” [unpublished manuscript], 1978; CIMADE report, “Parlons de la CIMADE,” February 15, 1950, CDJC, CCI-49; Geneviève Priacel-Pittet (Tatchou) report, “Passages de frontiers” (116-21); Suzanne Loiseau-Chevalley report, “Sur la frontier” (147-53); Jeanne Merle d’Aubigné, Violette Mouchon; Émile C. Fabre, eds., Les Clandestins de Dieu: CIMADE 1939-1945, (Paris: Fayard, 1968); God’s Underground: CIMADE 1939-1945, (St. Louis: Bethany Press, 1970; Joseph Bass Report, “L’Englise Protestant,” [n.d.].)

Cardinal Pierre Marie Gerlier●, head of the Catholic Church, Lyons Diocese, primate of Gaul, honorary president, Amitié Chrétienne (Christian Friendship), CIMADE, awarded Righteous Among the Nations title July 15, 1981 (Yad Vashem Archives; Fabre, 1970; Gutman, 2003, pp. 89-90, 268, 289; Hallie, 1979, pp. 41-42; Zuccotti, 1993, pp. 62, 72, 74, 139, 141, 146, 147, 149, 150, 297n75, 311n32)

Pastor Marc Boegner●, president of the Protestant Church in France, co-founder and head of CIMADE (Comité Inter-Mouvements Aupres des Evacues), Amitié Chrétienne (Christian Friendship), awarded Righteous Among the Nations title June 21, 1988 (Yad Vashem Archives; Fabre, 1970; Gutman, 2003, pp. 89-90, 195, 268; Hallie, 1979, p. 43; Moore, 2010, pp. 101, 128-129, 131; Zuccotti, 1993, pp. 58-59, 62, 141, 146, 150)

Mireille Philip●, co-founder CIMADE, smuggled young Jews to Switzerland, awarded Righteous Among the Nations title March 18, 1976 (Yad Vashem Archives; Fabre, 1970; Gutman, 2003, p. 439)

Madelein Barot●, co-founder of CIMADE, general secretary, awarded Righteous Among the Nations title March 28, 1988 (Yad Vashem Archives; Fabre, 1970; Gutman, 2003, pp. 57, 402; Hallie, 1979; Zuccotti, 1993, pp. 68-69, 71-72, 228, 230, 231, 246)

Fanny Barouch●, CIMADE, awarded Righteous Among the Nations title (Yad Vashem Archives; Gutman, 2003)

Rolande Birgy●, CIMADE, guide, Jeunesse Ouvriere Chrétienne (JOC), escoreted refugees to safety, awarded Righteous Among the Nations title (Yad Vashem Archives, Birgy testimony, 1987; Zuccotti, 1993, pp. 249-356n4)

Pastor Joseph Bourdon●, CIMADE, Protestant Seminary, Mende, capital of the Department of Lozère, awarded Righteous Among the Nations title December 22, 1983 (Yad Vashem Archives; Gutman, 2003, pp. 101-102, 257-258)

Mme. Henriette Bourdon●, CIMADE, wife of Pastor Joseph Bourdon, awarded Righteous Among the Nations title December 22, 1983 (Yad Vashem Archives; Gutman, 2003, pp. 101-102, 257-258)

Pastor Paul Brunel● (b. 1884), CIMADE, Prostestant Church, Nimes, awarded Righteous Among the Nations title January 5, 1984 (Yad Vashem Archives; Gutman, 2003, pp. 115-116)

Mme. Brunel●, CIMADE, awarded Righteous Among the Nations title January 5, 1984 (Yad Vashem Archives; Gutman, 2003, pp. 115-116)

Pastor Chalres Cadier, CIMADE, helped prisoners in French concentration camps (Fabre, 1970, p. 67)

Pastor Paul Chapal, CIMADE, hid Jews in his church and residence (Fabre, 1970; Nodot, 1978; Zuccotti, 1993, pp. 248, 355n3)

Pastor Charles Cuillon, CIMADE (Fabre, 1970)

Jeanne Merle d’Aubigné, CIMADE activist, worked in CIMADE with Madelein Barot (Fabre, 1970, p. 31; Gutman, 2003, p. 57)

Pastor J. Delpech, CIMADE (Fabre, 1970; Gutman, 2003)

Father Théomir Devaux●, head of Les Pères de Sion Convent, Church of Saint Sulpice, Paris, France, CIMADE, awarded Righteous Among the Nations title August 6, 1996 (Yad Vashem Archives; Gutman, 2003, pp. 201-202; Zuccotti, 1993)

Pastor André Dumas●, CIMADE, Rivesaltes French detention camp, Pyrenees Orientals, awarded Righteous Among the Nations title December 26, 1944 (Yad Vashem Archives; Fabre, 1970; Gutman, 2003, pp. 214-215)

Léon Eyraud●, (alias “Père Noël”), CIMADE, Le Chambon-sur-Lignon, awarded Righteous Among the Nations title December 28, 1987 (Yad Vashem Archives; Gutman, 2003, pp. 231-232; Hallie, 1979, pp. 178, 185, 188)

Madam Antoinette Eyraud●, CIMADE, wife of Léon Eyraud, Le Chambon-sur-Lignon, awarded Righteous Among the Nations title December 28, 1987 (Yad Vashem Archives; Gutman, 2003, pp. 231-232; Hallie, 1979, pp. 127, 177-179, 185, 199, 296)

Father Louis Favre+*, teacher, École Saint Francis, Ville La Grand, near Annemasse, CIMADE, helped smuggle Jews from his school on the Swiss-French border to the safety of Switzerland; arrested, tortured and murdered by Gestapo July 1944 (Haymann, 1984, pp. 129-131; Zuccotti, 1993, pp. 250-251)

Father (Abbé) Camille Folliet●, Annancy, founder CIMADE, awarded Righteous Among the Nations title July 3, 1991 (Yad Vashem Archives; Fabre, 1970; Gutman, 2003, pp. 242, 439)

Dr. Jean Guillard, MD●, CIMADE, St. Jean-en-Royan area, Department of Drôme, Vecors Mountains, awarded Righteous Among the Nations title June 10, 1996 (Yad Vashem Archives; Gutman, 2003, pp. 289-290)

Renée Guillard●, CIMADE, wife of Dr. Jean Guillard, St. Jean-en-Royan area, Department of Drôme, Vecors Mountains, awarded Righteous Among the Nations title June 10, 1996 (Yad Vashem Archives; Gutman, 2003,pp. 289-290)

Pastor Charles Guillon●, CIMADE, mayor of Le Chambon-sur-Lignon, awarded Righteous Among the Nations title May 5, 1991 (Yad Vashem Archives; Gutman, 2003, p. 291)

Jules Hébrard●, CIMADE, Lasalle, Department of Gard, France, awarded Righteous Among the Nations title December 9, 1996 (Yad Vashem Archives; Gutman, 2003, p. 300)

Odette Hébrard●, CIMADE, wife of Jules Hébrard, Lasalle, France, Department of Gard, awarded Righteous Among the Nations title December 9, 1996 (Yad Vashem Archives; Gutman,2003, p. 300)

Abbé/Father Marius Jolivet●, CIMADE, Collonges, France, guided Jews to Swiss border, awarded Righteous Among the Nations title (Yad Vashem Archives; Nodot; Zuccotti, 1993, p. 250)

Joseph Lancon*● (“Jo”), CIMADE, layperson, Village of Veigy-Foncenex, member of the Douvaine Rescue Network, awarded Righteous Among the Nations title May 16, 1989 (Yad Vashem Archives; Gutman, 2003, pp. 337, 433)

Thérèse (Neury) Lancon●, CIMADE, daughter of Joseph Lancon, layperson, Village of Veigy-Foncenex, member of the Douvaine Rescue Network, awarded Righteous Among the Nations title May 16, 1989 (Yad Vashem Archives; Gutman, 2003, pp. 337, 433)

Pastor Liotard, Belgrade, CIMADE, distributed clothing, food and supplies for Jews in hiding (Fabre, 1970; Gutman, 2003, p. 544)

Suzanne Loiseau-Chevalley, CIMADE (Fabre, 1970; Nodot, 1978; Priacel-Pittet (Tatchou) report; Suzanne Loiseu report; Zucotti, 1993, pp. 248, 355n3)

Simone Mairesse●, CIMADE, Mazet-Saint-Voy, Service André, awarded Righteous Among the Nations title December 26, 1988 (Yad Vashem Archives; Gutman, 2003, pp. 369-370)

Henri Manen●, chaplain, Les Milles French concentration camp, Aix-en-Provence, France, CIMADE, awarded Righteous Among the Nations title March 20, 1986 (Yad Vashem Archives; Fabre, 1970; Gutman, 2003, pp. 370-371)

Alice Manen●, CIMADE, wife of Henri Manen, awarded Righteous Among the Nations title March 20, 1986 (Yad Vashem Archives; Fabre, 1970; Gutman, 2003, pp. 370-371)

Pastor Jacques Martin●, CIMADE, awarded Righteous Among the Nations title September 6, 1989 (Yad Vashem Archives; Gutman, 2003, pp. 378-379)

Simone Martin●, CIMADE, wife of Pastor Jacques Martin, awarded Righteous Among the Nations title September 6, 1989 (Yad Vashem Archives; Gutman, 2003, pp. 378-379)

Dr. Heinrich Mayer (MD), CIMADE, nurse, Swiss Aid, helped organize food supplies in French concentration camps, worked with CIMADE (Fabre, 1970, p. 66)

Hubert Meyer● (b. 1915), CIMADE, ran Coteau Flueri for Recuperating Prisoners from the Gurs and Rivesaltes French internment camps, awarded Righteous Among the Nations title May 7, 1989 (Yad Vashem Archives; Gutman, 2003, pp. 396-397)

Pastor André Morel●+, chaplain, Gurs French detention camp (1941-1942), Le Chambon-sur-Lignon, member of CIMADE, awarded Righteous Among the Nations title September 23, 1990 (Yad Vashem Archives; Fabre, 1970, pp. 26, 66; Gutman, 2003, p. 402; Halle, 1979)

Pierre Ogier●, CIMADE, Lyons, France, awarded Righteous Among the Nations title March 13, 1997 (Yad Vashem Archives; Fabre, 1970; Gutman, 2003, pp. 413-414)

Henriette Ogier●, CIMADE, awarded Righteous Among the Nations title March 13, 1997 (Yad Vashem Archives; Fabre, 1970; Gutman, 2003, pp. 413-414)

François Périllat●+*, CIMADE, layperson, awarded Righteous Among the Nations title May 6, 1989 (Yad Vashem Archives; Gutman, 2003, p. 337)

Georges Perrod●, member CIMADE, Douvaine Rescue/Escape Network, Douvaine, France, school principal, awarded Righteous Among the Nations title October 17, 1994 (Yad Vashem Archives; Gutman, 2003)

Maria Perrod●, wife of Georges Perrod, member CIMADE, Douvaine Rescue/Escape Network, Douvaine, France, awarded Righteous Among the Nations title October 17, 1994 (Yad Vashem Archives; Gutman, 2003)

Mireille Philip●, Départment of Haute-Savoie, co-founder CIMADE, smuggled Jews from Le Chambon to Switzerland, she worked with Father Camille Folliet, Father Jean Rosay, Pierre Piton, Albert Roux, Mme. Roux, awarded Righteous Among the Nations title March 18, 1976 (Yad Vashem Archives; Gutman, 2003, pp. 439, 485)

Pierre Piton● (b. 1925), CIMADE, Collège Chévenol, helped smuggle Jews to Switzerland, awarded Righteous Among the Nations title May 16, 1989 (Yad Vashem Archives; Gutman, 2003, p. 439)

Geneviève Priacel-Pittet (YV M31/4872 [Folliet]; Fabre, 1970; Lazare; Loiseau-Chevally Report; Priacel-Pittet (Tatchau) Report; Zuccotti, 1993, p. 248)

Pastor Jacques Rennes, CIMADE, chaplain, French concentration camps, helped prisoners in camps (Fabre, 1970, pp. 67-68)

General Pierre Robert de Saint-Vincent●, CIMADE, Military Governor of Lyon, France, member Secret Army, Christian Friendship and Marc Boegner Rescue Network, awarded Righteous Among the Nations title (Yad Vashem Archives; Gutman, 2003, pp. 472-473)

Father Jean Rosay●+* (killed), CIMADE, Douvaine Escape/Rescue Network, Douvaine, Department of Haute-Savoie, France, died in Bergen Belsen concentration camp, Germany, awarded Righteous Among the Nations title January 23, 1991 (Yad Vashem Archives; Gutman, 2003, pp. 337, 433, 439, 480; Zuccotti, 1993, pp. 249, 356n4; Roland Birge testimony, pp. 31-33, 32, Thérèse Neury testimony, pp. 34-35, and Suzanne Loiseau testimony, pp. 34-35, in “Résistance non violente: La filière de Douvaine—l’Abbé Jean Rosay, Joseph Lancon, François Perillat—morts en deportation,” Douvaine, Haute-Savoie, unpublished brochure, May 24, 1987)

Albert Roux●, CIMADE, Chaumargeais (Department Haute-Loire), Le Chambon-sur-Lignon, worked with OSE, awarded Righteous Among the Nations title January 18, 1990 (Yad Vashem Archives; Gutman, 2003, p. 231; Hallie, 1979)

Mme. Roux●, wife of Albert Roux, CIMADE, Chaumargeais (Department Haute-Loire), Le Chambon-sur-Lignon, worked with OSE, awarded Righteous Among the Nations title January 18, 1990 (Yad Vashem Archives; Gutman, 2003, pp. 231, 439)

Elie Russier●, member CIMADE, owned Le Coteau Fleuri, a pension to rehabilitate former prisoners in the Gurs and Rivesaltes French internment camps, awarded Righteous Among the Nations title December 26, 1988 (Yad Vashem Archives; Gutman, 2003, p. 491)

Marie Russier●, wife of Elie Russier, CIMADE, awarded Righteous Among the Nations title December 26, 1988 (Yad Vashem Archives; Gutman, 2003, p. 491)

Reverend Saint-Martin, CIMADE, Department of Grad, Pastor Marc Boegner Rescue Network, hid Jew in home of Jules Hébard and his wife, Odette Hébard (Gutman, 2003, p. 300)

Jacques Saussine*, CIMADE, Camp Récébédou, French detention camp, died of appendicitis in Récébédou (Fabre, 1970, p. 30)

Pastor Hans Schaffert (Swiss), CIMADE, Gurs Camp

Minister Elizabeth Schmidt, CIMADE, Gurs French detention camp, contracted typhoid in Gurs (Fabre, 1970, pp. 30, 73-74)

Jean Marie Soutou●+, CIMADE, Lyon area, helped found Christian Friendship (Amitié Chrétienne) with Father Pierre Chaillet in 1941, arrested with Chaillet for helping Jews, awarded Righteous Among the Nations title March 22, 1994 (Yad Vashem Archives; Gutman, 2003, pp. 268, 506)

Pastor Pierre Toureille●, CIMADE, served as chaplain to prisoners in French concentration camps, appointed by Pastor Marc Boegner, deputy chairman Nimes Committee (Comité de Nîmes), awarded Righteous Among the Nations title November 6, 1973 (Yad Vashem Archives; Fabre, 1970, p. 44; Gutman, 2003, p. 525)

Magda Trocmé●, wife of Pastor André Pascal Trocmé, CIMADE, Le Chambon-sur-Lignon, Cevenol Normal School, Department of Haute-Loire, France, awarded Righteous Among the Nations title January 5, 1971 (Yad Vashem Archives; Gutman, 2003, pp. 529-530; Hallie, 1979, pp. 19-21, 64-67, 149-150, 152-156, 161-163, 195-196, 259, 265; Zuccotti, 1993, p. 229)

Pastor André Pascal Trocmé●, CIMADE, Le Chambon-sur-Lignon, Cevenol Normal School, Department of Haute-Loire, France, awarded Righteous Among the Nations title January 5, 1971 (Yad Vashem Archives; Gutman, 2003, pp. 529-530; Hallie, 1979, pp. 16-24, 49-72, 99-107, 221-231, 256-259; Zuccotti, 1993, pp. 212, 228-230, 246)

Daniel Trocmé●*, son of André and Magda Trocmé, CIMADE, Le Chambon-sur-Lignon, head of Maison des Roches (children’s home), deported and murdered in the Majdanek death camp, awarded Righteous Among the Nations title March 18, 1976 (Yad Vashem Archives; Gutman, 2003, pp. 529-530; Hallie, 1979, pp. 168, 181, 205-217, 219, 221, 247, 259; Zuccotti, 1993, p. 230)

Pastor Édouard Theis●+, CIMADE, director, College Cevenol, Le Chambon-sur-Lignon, Department of Haute-Loire, France, arrested and interned by Germans for helping Jews, awarded Righteous Among the Nations title July 15, 1981 (Yad Vashem Archives; Gutman, 2003, p. 519; Hallie, 1979, pp. 4-7, 12, 22-44, 61, 82-85, 90-92, 177, 232-233; Zuccotti, 1993, pp. 221, 229)

Mildred Theis●, CIMADE, wife of Pastor Edouard Theis, Le Chambon-sur-Lignon, Department of Haute-Loire, France, awarded Righteous Among the Nations title July 15, 1981 (Yad Vashem Archives; Gutman, 2003, p. 519; Hallie, 1979, pp. 5, 12, 27, 82, 251; Zuccotti, 1993, pp. 221, 229)

Emma Voirin●, CIMADE, layperson, hid and protected young Jewish girl in their home, awarded Righteous Among the Nations title April 18, 1989 (Yad Vashem Archives; Fabre, 1970; Gutman, 2003, p. 544)

Jean Voirin●, CIMADE, layperson, hid and protected young Jewish girl in their home, awarded Righteous Among the Nations title April 18, 1989 (Yad Vashem Archives; Fabre, 1970; Gutman, 2003, p. 544)

Reverend Clayton Williams, CIMADE, pastor, American Church, Paris, France (Fabre, 1970, p. 62)

Coordinating Committee for Assistance in the Camps (Comité de Coordination pour l’Assistance dans les Camps), France (Gutman, 2003, pp. 89-90; Ryan, 1996; Zuccotti, 1993)

Pastor Marc Boegner●, founder, president of the Protestant Church in France, head of CIMADE (Comité Inter-Mouvements Aupres des Evacues), Amitié Chrétienne (Christian Friendship), awarded Righteous Among the Nations title June 21, 1988 (Yad Vashem Archives; Fabre, 1970; Gutman, 2003, pp. 89-90, 195, 268; Hallie, 1979, p. 43; Moore, 2010, pp. 101, 128-129, 131; Zuccotti, 1993, pp. 58-59, 62, 141, 146, 150)

Conseil Protestant de la Jeunesse

Comité d’Inter-Mouvement Aupres des Evacués (CIMADE), see Committee for Action on Behalf of Refugees

Douvaine Escape Network, Village of Douvaine, Haute-Savoie Department, France, near Swiss border, Southern France, see also CIMADE (Gutman, 2003, p. 437; Nodot, 1987; Perrod, 1964)

Rescue network in Southern France near the Swiss border.  Helped hundreds of Jews escape France to Switzerland.

Father Jean-Joseph Rosay●+*, leader Douvaine Escape Network, Catholic Workers Youth (JOC), awarded Righteous Among the Nations title (Yad Vashem Archives; Gutman, 2003, pp. 65-66, 337, 433, 437)

Louis Beetschen●, hid and sheltered Jewish children in their home in Douvaine, awarded Righteous Among the Nations title March 19, 1987 (Yad Vashem Archives; Gutman, 2003, pp. 65-66)

Leontine Beetschen●, wife of Louis Reetschen, hid and sheltered Jewish children in their home in Douvaine, awarded Righteous Among the Nations title March 19, 1987 (Yad Vashem Archives)

Father Figuet+, Catholic Worker Youth (JOC), helped hundreds of Jewish children escape from France to Switzerland (Gutman, 2003, p. 337)

Joseph Lancon●+* (“Jo”), Catholic Workers Youth (JOC), awarded Righteous Among the Nations title May 16, 1989 (Yad Vashem Archives; Gutman, 2003, p. 337)

Thérèse (Neury) Lancon●+, awarded Righteous Among the Nations title May 16, 1989 (Yad Vashem Archives; Gutman, 2003, p. 337)

François Perillat●+*, Village of Veigy-Foncenex, worked with Joseph Lancon, smuggled hundreds of Jews over the Swiss border, arrested with Father Rosay, deported to concentration camp where he died, December 13, 1944, awarded Righteous Among the Nations title May 16, 1989 (Yad Vashem Archives; Gutman, 2003, p. 337)

Georges Perrod●, elementary school principal, Douvaine, France, awarded Righteous Among the Nations title October 17, 1994 (Yad Vashem Archives; Gutman, 2003, pp. 432-433)

Maria Perrod●, Doivaine, France, awarded Righteous Among the Nations title October 17, 1994 (Yad Vashem Archives; Gutman, 2003, pp. 432-433)

International Commission for the Assistance of Spanish Child Refugees, Perpignan, France, established in February 1939 by the American Friends Service Committee (AFSC) to help children of Spanish Republican soldiers who fled to Southern France; also helped Jewish refugees; worked with ORT and OSE as well; see also American Friends Service Committee, France (Moore, 2010, p. 139)

Pastor Jean Jousselin Rescue Network, Paris/Montmartre, France (YV M31/1670; Jean Jousselin; Cohen, 2000, pp. 112-114; Gutman, 2003, p. 317; Yahil, 2005, p. 530)

Paston Jean Jousselin ran a youth center in the Southern zone that was used to hide Jews and provide documents for them.  Jousselin was relieved from his position for helping Jews.  He was later assigned by the Mission Populaire Evangélique in Paris to establish a summer home for youth.  He again used this opportunity to take Jewish youth out of the city to a scout camp, Cappy-Maison, near Verberie in the Oise District, where they were protected.  He helped 135 youth, including 87 Jews.

Pastor Jean Jousselin●, awarded Righteous Among the Nations title February 21, 1980 (Yad Vashem Archives; Gutman, 2003, p. 317)

La Clairiere Child Care Center, Paris, France, see also Paul Vergara Rescue and Relief Network (YV M31/3980, Vergara; Gutman, 2004, p. 290)

Social and charitable center helped hide and shelter Jewish children during the German occupation of Paris.  It was founded by Wilfrid Monod in 1911.  It worked closely with Pastor Paul Vergara and his rescue and relief network, also in Paris.  La Clairiere worked with the UGIF.

Wilfrid Monod, founder, head

Madeleine Monod●, member of Protestant rescue network in Cannes, France, awarded Righteous Among the Nations title January 7, 1996 (Yad Vashem Archives; Gutman, 2003, p. 400)

Marcel Guillemont●, head La Clairiere Child Care Center, Paris, France, awarded Righteous Among the Nations title October 4, 1989 (Yad Vashem Archives; Gutman, 2003; Gutman, 2004, pp. 290, 506-507, 538-539)

Emil Puget●, helped place Jews with Guillemot family in Paris, awarded Righteous Among the Nations title (Yad Vashem Archives)

Valentine Puget●, helped place Jews with Guillemot family in Paris, awarded Righteous Among the Nations title (Yad Vashem Archives)

Suzanne Spaak●+*, Vergara Rescue Network, Paris, National Movement Against Racism (MNCR), arrested by Gestapo October 1943, murdered August 12, 1944, awarded Righteous Among the Nations title (Yad Vashem Archives; Gutman, 2003, pp. 290, 506-507)

Pastor Paul Vergara●+, leader, L’Oratoire du Louvre Church, Paris, France, awarded Righteous Among the Nations title August 30, 1988 (Yad Vashem Archives; Gutman, 2003; Gutman, 2004, pp. 290, 506-507, 538-539)

Marcel Vergara●, wife of Pastor Paul Vergara, Paris, France, awarded Righteous Among the Nations title August 30, 1988 (Yad Vashem Archives; Gutman, 2004, pp. 538-539)

“Marcel” Rescue Network, Southern France, Jewish rescue network aided by local Catholic and Protestant clerics and church officials.  Saved 300-500 children. (Gutman, 2003, pp. 230, 463; Konopnicki, pp. 87-97; Zuccotti, 1993)

Bishop Monsignor Paul Réymond●, Bishop of Nice, France, awarded Righteous Among the Nations title December 2, 1991 (Yad Vashem Archives; Gutman, 2003, p. 463; Zuccotti, 1993, p. 217)

Moussa Abadi (Jewish), OSE (Gutman, 2003, p. 463; Zuccotti, 1993, pp. 216-217, 225)

Father Michel Blain●, parish priest, Notre Dame Auxiliation Church, Nice, France, Chaplain Don Bosco School, awarded Righteous Among the Nations title March 29, 1999 (Yad Vashem Archives; Gutman, 2003, pp. 85-86)

Alfred Daumas●, Church Welfare Services (Oeuvres Sociale du Diocese), Nice, France, chaplain trade unions, awarded Righteous Among the Nations title November 5, 1997 (Yad Vashem Archives; Gutman, 2003, p. 179)

Pastor Edmond Evrard●, Baptist Church, Nice, France, awarded Righteous Among the Nations title December 26, 1994 (Yad Vashem Archives; Gutman, 2003, p. 230)

Ida Evrard●, wife of Pastor Edmond Evrard, awarded Righteous Among the Nations title December 26, 1994 (Yad Vashem Archives; Gutman, 2003, p. 230)

Dan Evrard●, son of Pastor Edmond Evrard, awarded Righteous Among the Nations title December 26, 1994 (Yad Vashem Archives; Gutman, 2003, p. 230)

Louis Evrard●, son of Pastor Edmond Evrard, awarded Righteous Among the Nations title December 26, 1994 (Yad Vashem Archives; Gutman, 2003, p. 230)

Pastor Gagnier

Mademoiselle Lagache, secretary to Monsignor Paul Réymond(Gutman, 2003)

Yvonne Roques●, Nice, France, rescued approximately 100 Jewish children and young adults in Nice area, awarded Righteous Among the Nations title (Yad Vashem Archives; Gutman, 2003, pp. 479-480)

Dr. Odette Rosenstock+ (Jewish), arrested and deported (Gutman, 2003, p. 463; Zuccotti, 1993, p. 217)

Mission Populaire Evangélique, 18th District, Paris, France, see also Jean Jousselin Rescue Network

Established Maison Verte, a youth organization for young Parisians.  It was led by Pastor Jean Jousselin, who used it as an opportunity to rescue Jewish youth.  (YV M31/1670, Jean Jousselin; Cohen, 2000, pp. 112-114; Gutman, 2003, p. 317; Moore, 2010, p. 269; Yagil, 2005, p. 530)

Pastor Jean Jousselin●, awarded Righteous Among the Nations title February 21, 1980 (Yad Vashem Archives; Gutman, 2003, p. 317)

Le Chambon sur Lignon, town of Haute Loire Province, Southern France, see also CIMADE (Comité Intermouvements Auprès des Évacues), AFSC, USC, YMCA, Czech Aid, etc.

Major rescue operation in the south of France.  It saved an estimated 2,500 Jews.  The Le Chambon rescue was funded in part by the following: World Council of Churches; Sweden; CIMADE.  (Fabre, 1970; Fayol, 1990; Gutman, 2003; Hallie, 1979; Poliakov, 1981; Ryan, 1996, pp. 11, 160, 220; Zuccotti, 1993, pp. 75, 212, 225-232. 240, 241, 248, 275; Joseph Bass Report, “L’Englise Protestant,” [n.d.])

These are the clergy and others who rescued Jews in the town of Le Chambon:

Pastor Charles Guillon●, Mayor of Le Chambon-sur-Lignon, Department of Haute-Loire, France, secretary general Protestant Organization, World Secretary of the Young Men’s Christian Association (YMCA), Comité d’Inter-Mouvement Aupres des Evacués (CIMADE), France, awarded Righteous Among the Nations title May 5, 1991 (Yad Vashem Archives; Gutman, 2003, p. 291)

Lucie Abel●, awarded Righteous Among the Nations title September 10, 1990 (Yad Vashem Archives; Gutman, 2003, p. 32)

Lydie Abel●, awarded Righteous Among the Nations title September 10, 1990 (Yad Vashem Archives; Gutman, 2003, p. 32)

Joseph Argaud●, Le Haut Biol Village, worked with Pastor André Bettex in hiding Jews on his farm near Le Chambon, also hid children for OSE, awarded Righteous Among the Nations title November 13, 1984 (Yad Vashem Archives; Gutman, 2003, p. 41)

Emilienne Argaud●, wife of Joseph Argaud, Le Haut Biol Village, worked with Pastor André Bettex in hiding Jews on his farm near Le Chambon, also hid children for OSE, awarded Righteous Among the Nations title November 13, 1984 (Yad Vashem Archives; Gutman, 2003, p. 41)

Cyrille Argenti● (later Father), awarded Righteous Among the Nations title March 1, 1990 (Yad Vashem Archives; Gutman, 2003, pp. 40-41)

Madeleine Barot●, Secretary General, CIMADE, awarded Righteous Among the Nations title March 28, 1988 (Yad Vashem Archives; Fabre, 1970; Gutman, 2003, p. 57; Hallie, 1979, p. 195; Zuccotti, 1993, pp. 68-69, 71-72, 228, 230-231, 246)

Georgette Barraud●, director Beau Soliel Children’s Home, awarded Righteous Among the Nations title March 28, 1988 (Yad Vashem Archives; Gutman, 2003, p. 58)

Gabrielle Barraud●, daughter of Georgette Barraud, awarded Righteous Among the Nations title March 28, 1988 (Yad Vashem Archives; Gutman, 2003, p. 58; Hallie, 1979, pp. 179-182, 251-254)

Madelein Barraud (“Manou”; Hallie, 1979, pp. 181, 252-254)

Joseph Bass (Joseph Bass Report, “L’Englise Protestant,” [n.d.]; CDJC, ccxviii-84,3; Poliakov, 1946)

Pastor Besson, Le Chambon area (Zuccotti, 1993, p. 229; Joseph Bass Report [n.d.], CDJC, ccxvii-84,3)

Pastor Betrix, Le Chambon area (Zuccotti, 1993, p. 229; Joseph Bass Report [n.d.], CDJC ccxvii)

August Bohny●, Le Secours Suisse, awarded Righteous Among the Nations title July 16, 1990 (Yad Vashem Archives; Gutman, 2003)

Fiedel Bohny-Reiter●, wife of August Bohny, Le Secourse Suisse, awarded Righteous Among the Nations title July 16, 1990 (Yad Vashem Archives)

Lily (Russier) Boît (Gutman, 2003, p. 491)

Jean Bouix● (b. 1898), awarded Righteous Among the Nations title December 28, 1987 (Yad Vashem Archives; Gutman, 2003, p. 99)

Marie Brottes●, awarded Righteous Among the Nations title March 28, 1989 (Yad Vashem Archives; Gutman, 2003, p. 113)

Ernest Chazot, Village of Le Mazet, near Le Chambon, hid Jews (Hallie, 1979, pp. 182, 184)

Mme. Chazot, wife of Ernest Chazot, Village of Le Mazet, near Le Chambon, hid Jews (Hallie, 1979, pp. 182, 184)

Pastor Daniel Curtet●, Fay-sur-Lignon (Haute Loire), near Le Chambon-sur-Lignon, southern France, hid and sheltered Jews, awarded Righteous Among the Nations title September 10, 1990 (Yad Vashem Archives; Gutman, 2003, pp. 31, 173; Zuccotti, 1993, p. 229; Joseph Bass Report [n.n.], ccxviii-84, 3)

Suzanne Curtet●, wife of Pastor Daniel Curtet, Fay-sur-Lignon (Haute Loire), near Le Chambon-sur-Lignon, southern France, hid and sheltered Jews, awarded Righteous Among the Nations title September 10, 1990 (Yad Vashem Archives; Gutman, 2003, p. 173)

Roger Darcissac●, principal of public school, Le Chambon, awarded Righteous Among the Nations title November 14, 1988 (Yad Vashem Archives; Gutman, 2003, pp. 176-177; Hallie, 1979, pp. 27-29, 39-40, 82, 231-232; Zuccotti, 1993, p. 229)

Jeanne Merle d’Aubigné, assistant to Madelein Barot (Zuccotti, 1993, p. 350n6)

François d’Allens DeCellery●, Amitié Chrétienne (Christian Friendship), awarded Righteous Among the Nations title May 3, 1982 (Yad Vashem Archives; Gutman, 2003, p. 182)

Pastor Marc Donadille●, Le Chambon, awarded Righteous Among the Nations title (Yad Vashem Archives; Fabre, 1970; Zuccotti, 1993, p. 350n6)

Mrs. Marc Donadille●, wife of Pastor Marc Donadille, Le Chambon, awarded Righteous Among the Nations title (Yad Vashem Archives; Fabre, 1970; Zuccotti, 1993, p. 350n6)

Pastor Edmond Evrard● (Baptist pastor), Ida Evrard●, and sons, Daniel Evrard● and Louis Evrard●, Nice, Alpes-Maritime, France, awarded Righteous Among the Nations title December 26, 1994 (Yad Vashem Archives; Gutman, 2003, pp. 230-231; Hallie, 1979)

Léon Evraud● (alias “Père Noël”), awarded Righteous Among the Nations title (Yad Vashem Archives; Gutman, 2003, p. 231; Hallie, 1979, pp. 178, 185, 188)

Madam Françoise Evraud (CIMADE; Halle, 1979, pp. 127, 177-179, 185, 199, 296)

Enri Héritier●, awarded Righteous Among the Nations title December 28, 1987 (Yad Vashem Archives; Gutman, 2003, pp. 302-303)

Emma Héritier●, wife of Enri Héritier, awarded Righteous Among the Nations title December 28, 1987 (Yad Vashem Archives; Gutman, 2003, pp. 302-303)

Pastor Jeannet, Le Chambon area (Zuccotti, 1993, p. 229; Joseph Bass Report [n.d.], CDJC ccxviii-84, 3)

Eva Jouve●, awarded Righteous Among the Nations title April 28, 1989 (Yad Vashem Archives; Gutman, 2003, p. 318)

M. Jouve●, awarded Righteous Among the Nations title April 28, 1989 (Yad Vashem Archives; Gutman, 2003, p. 318)

Bertha Kittler●, awarded Righteous Among the Nations title April 28, 1989 (Yad Vashem Archives; Gutman, 2003, p. 324)

M. Kittler●, awarded Righteous Among the Nations title April 28, 1989 (Yad Vashem Archives; Gutman, 2003, p. 324)

Joseph Lancon*+● (“Jo”), layperson, Village of Veigy-Foncenex, member of the Douvaine Rescue Network, CIMADE, awarded Righteous Among the Nations title May 16, 1989 (Yad Vashem Archives; Gutman, 2003, pp. 337, 433)

Pastor Leenhardt, Le Chambon area (Zuccotti, 1993, p. 229; Joseph Bass Report [n.d.], CDJC ccxviii-84, 3)

Pastor Jean Séverin Lemaire●, Marseilles, France, Pastor of the Evangelist Congregation in Marseilles, France, awarded Righteous Among the Nations title February 19, 1976 (Yad Vashem Archives; Gutman, 2003, p. 356)

Pastor Raoul Lhermet●, Saint-André de Valborgne, Le Chambon-sur-Lignon, Department of Haute-Loire, France, awarded Righteous Among the Nations title January 17, 1985 (Yad Vashem Archives; Gutman, 2003, p. 361)

Pastor Liotard, Belgrade, CIMADE, distributed clothing, food and supplies for Jews in hiding (Fabre, 1970; Gutman, 2003, p. 544)

Miss Maber, Le Chambon-sur-Lignon (Hallie, 1979, pp. 174-175, 211, 236, 254)

Simon Mairesse●, Mazet-Saint-Voy, Service André, awarded Righteous Among the Nations title December 26, 1988 (Yad Vashem Archives; Halle, 1979, pp. 155, 163, 250, 369-370)

Pastor Jacques Martin●+, Ganges (Héralt), France, member Comité d’Inter-Mouvement Aupres des Evacués (CIMADE), active in underground rescue network CIMADE in saving Jewish refugees; found hiding places among local families; provided lifesaving documents; was arrested by French authorities; awarded Righteous Among the Nations title June 22, 1998 (Yad Vashem Archives; Gutman, 2003, pp. 378-379)

Jacqueline Martin●, wife of Pastor Jacques Martin, Ganges (Héralt), France, member Comité d’Inter-Mouvement Aupres des Evacués (CIMADE), active in underground rescue network CIMADE in saving Jewish refugees; found hiding places among local families; provided lifesaving documents; awarded Righteous Among the Nations title June 22, 1998 (Yad Vashem Archives; Gutman, 2003, pp. 378-379)

Jean May●, awarded Righteous Among the Nations title August 16, 1994 (Yad Vashem Archives; Gutman, 2003, p. 387)

Eugénie May●, awarded Righteous Among the Nations title August 16, 1994 (Yad Vashem Archives; Gutman, 2003, p. 387)

Germaine May●, awarded Righteous Among the Nations title August 16, 1994 (Yad Vashem Archives; Gutman, 2003, p. 387)

Roger May●, awarded Righteous Among the Nations title August 16, 1994 (Yad Vashem Archives; Gutman, 2003, p. 387)

Eugénie Mettenet● (b. 1916), awarded Righteous Among the Nations title May 7, 1989 (Yad Vashem Archives; Gutman, 2003, p. 395)

Francois Périllat●+* (CIMADE) , awarded Righteous Among the Nations title May 6, 1989 (Yad Vashem Archives; Gutman, 2003, p. 433)

Hubert Meyer● (b. 1915), CIMADE, ran Coteau Flueri for Recuperating Prisoners from the Gurs and Rivesaltes French internment camps, awarded Righteous Among the Nations title May 7, 1989 (Yad Vashem Archives; Gutman, 2003, pp. 396-397)

Jean Ollivier●, awarded Righteous Among the Nations title April 28, 1989 (Yad Vashem Archives; Gutman, 2003, p. 414)

Nancy Ollivier●, awarded Righteous Among the Nations title April 28, 1989 (Yad Vashem Archives; Gutman, 2003, p. 414)

Hermine Orsi●, member Service André, awarded Righteous Among the Nations title April 29, 1985 (Yad Vashem Archives; Gutman, 2003, p. 416)

Georges Perrod●, member CIMADE, Douvaine Rescue/Escape Network, Douvaine, France, school principal, awarded Righteous Among the Nations title October 17, 1994 (Yad Vashem Archives; Gutman, 2003)

Maria Perrod●, wife of Georges Perrod, member CIMADE, Douvaine Rescue/Escape Network, Douvaine, France, awarded Righteous Among the Nations title October 17, 1994 (Yad Vashem Archives; Gutman, 2003)

Mireille Philip●, Départment of Haute-Savoie, co-founder CIMADE, smuggled Jews from Le Chambon to Switzerland, she worked with Father Camille Folliet, Father Jean Rosay, Pierre Piton, Albert Roux, Mme. Roux, awarded Righteous Among the Nations title March 18, 1976 (Yad Vashem Archives; Gutman, 2003, pp. 439, 485)

Oliver de Pierreborg●, founder Amitié Chrétienne (Christina Friendship) in Lyons, France, awarded Righteous Among the Nations title May 3, 1982 (Yad Vashem Archives; Gutman, 2003, p. 182)

Pierre Piton● (b. 1925), CIMADE, Collège Chévenol, helped smuggle Jews to Switzerland, awarded Righteous Among the Nations title May 16, 1989 (Yad Vashem Archives; Gutman, 2003, p. 439)

Pastor Poivre, Le Chambon area, France (Joseph Bass Report [n.d.]; CDJC, CCXVIII-84, 3; Zuccotti, 1993, p. 229)

Léon Poliakov, worked with Joseph Bass in rescue of Jews in Le Chambon area (Joseph Bass Report [n.d.], CCXVIII-84, 3; Poliakov, 1981)

Elie Russier●, member CIMADE, owned Le Coteau Fleuri, a pension to rehabilitate former prisoners in the Gurs and Rivesaltes French internment camps, awarded Righteous Among the Nations title December 26, 1988 (Yad Vashem Archives; Gutman, 2003, p. 491)

Marie Russier, wife of Elie Russier, member CIMADE, owned Le Coteau Fleuri, a pension to rehabilitate former prisoners in the Gurs and Rivesaltes French internment camps (Yad Vashem Archives; Gutman, 2003, p. 491)

Lily Boît, daughter of Elie Russier, member CIMADE, owned Le Coteau Fleuri, a pension to rehabilitate former prisoners in the Gurs and Rivesaltes French internment camps (Yad Vashem Archives; Gutman, 2003, p. 491)

Pastor Édouard Theis●+, CIMADE, director, College Cevenol, Le Chambon-sur-Lignon, Department of Haute-Loire, France, arrested and interned by Germans for helping Jews, awarded Righteous Among the Nations title July 15, 1981 (Yad Vashem Archives; Gutman, 2003, p. 519; Hallie, 1979, pp. 4-7, 12, 22-44, 61, 82-85, 90-92, 177, 232-233; Zuccotti, 1993, pp. 221, 229)

Mildred Theis●, CIMADE, wife of Pastor Edouard Theis, Le Chambon-sur-Lignon, Department of Haute-Loire, France, awarded Righteous Among the Nations title July 15, 1981 (Yad Vashem Archives; Gutman, 2003, p. 519; Hallie, 1979, pp. 5, 12, 27, 82, 251; Zuccotti, 1993, pp. 221, 229)

Pastor André Pascal Trocmé●, CIMADE, Le Chambon-sur-Lignon, Cevenol Normal School, Department of Haute-Loire, France, awarded Righteous Among the Nations title January 5, 1971 (Yad Vashem Archives; Gutman, 2003, pp. 529-530; Hallie, 1979, pp. 16-24, 49-72, 99-107, 221-231, 256-259; Zuccotti, 1993, pp. 212, 228-230, 246)

Daniel Trocmé●*, son of André and Magda Trocmé, CIMADE, Le Chambon-sur-Lignon, head of Maison des Roches (children’s home), deported and murdered in the Majdanek death camp, awarded Righteous Among the Nations title March 18, 1976 (Yad Vashem Archives; Gutman, 2003, pp. 529-530; Hallie, 1979, pp. 168, 181, 205-217, 219, 221, 247, 259; Zuccotti, 1993, p. 230)

Magda Trocmé●, wife of Pastor André Pascal Trocmé, CIMADE, Le Chambon-sur-Lignon, Cevenol Normal School, Department of Haute-Loire, France, awarded Righteous Among the Nations title January 5, 1971 (Yad Vashem Archives; Gutman, 2003, pp. 529-530; Hallie, 1979, pp. 19-21, 64-67, 149-150, 152-156, 161-163, 195-196, 259, 265; Zuccotti, 1993, p. 229)

Juliette Usach●, awarded Righteous Among the Nations title (Yad Vashem Archives; Gutman, 2003, p. 353)

Emma Voirin● (CIMADE), awarded Righteous Among the Nations title (Yad Vashem Archives; Gutman, 2003, p. 544)

Jean Voirin● (CIMADE), awarded Righteous Among the Nations title (Yad Vashem Archives; Gutman, 2003, p. 544)

Protestant Ecumenical Council, France, refugee group; see also Bishop of Chichester, George Bell, Great Britain; Pastor Heinrich Gruber, Germany; Swiss Protestant Federation (Moore, 2010, p. 129)

Pastor Adolf Freudenberg (Moore, 2010, p. 129)

Service André, Joseph Bass, father of Regis de Percevel; see also CIMADE, DELASEM (Gutman, 1990, 2003; Halle, 1979)

Joseph Bass (alias Mr. André; Jewish; Gutman, 2003)

Father de Parceval (Dominican prior; interned)

Father Bremond (Jesuit)

Father Marie-Benoit● (Capuchin monk; DELASEM; Gutman, 2003)

Pastor Hevze (Protestant; Reformed Church in Marseilles; interned and deported)

Pastor Severin Lemaire, Marseilles

Joseph Lasalarie (Attorney)

Murzi (attorney)

Israel Salzer (Chief Rabbi of Marseilles)

Angelo Donati, (Jewish) (banker), rescue activist, DELASAM

Chief Rabbi Rene Hirschler*, (Jewish)

Fernande Le Boucher, DELASEM, Marseilles, France, Rome, Italy, awarded Righteous Among the Nations title (Yad Vashem Archives; Gutman, 2003, pp. 347-348)

Pastor Paul Vergara Rescue Network, Oratoire du Louvre, Paris, France (Gutman, 2003, pp. 538-539; Yagil, 2005, p. 527)

Pastor Paul Vergara, with the help and aid of members of his congregation, helped to save 63 Jewish children during the German occupation of Paris.  Bergara worked with the UGIF.

Pastor Paul Vergara●, awarded Righteous Among the Nations title (Yad Vashem Archives; Gutman, 2003, pp. 538-539; Yagil, 2005, p. 527)

Marcelle Vergara●, awarded Righteous Among the Nations title (Yad Vashem Archives; Gutman, 2003, pp. 538-539; Yagil, 2005, p. 527)

Bechards●, awarded Righteous Among the Nations title (Yad Vashem Archives; Gutman, 2003, pp. 538-539; Yagil, 2005, p. 527)

Marcelle Guillemot●, awarded Righteous Among the Nations title (Yad Vashem Archives; Gutman, 2003, p. 539)

Wilfrid Monod, founder, La Clairiere, Paris, France

Individual Clergy in France, Protestant:

Olga St. Blancat Baumgarten, Salvation Army Rep., Belfort (Gutman, 2003)

Pastor Besson (Gutman, 2003)

Pastor Andre Betrix (Bettex), Mazet-Ste.-Foy, Department of Haute-Loire (Gutman, 2003)

Pastor Joseph Bourdon● and wife, Cevennes, Protestant seminary in Mende, Department of Lozere; worked with CIMADE, awarded Righteous Among the Nations title December 22, 1983 (Yad Vashem Archives; Gutman, 2003, pp. 101-102, 257-258)

Pastor Elie Brée●, Caveirac, Department of Gard, Cevenol Plateau, awarded Righteous Among the Nations title January 5, 1984 (Yad Vashem Archives; Gutman, 2003, pp. 109, 449)

Pastor Paul Brunel●, Nîmes, and Mme. Brunel, awarded Righteous Among the Nations title January 5, 1984 (Yad Vashem Archives; Gutman, 2003, pp. 115-116)

Pastor Charles Cabanis●, Bedarieux, Herault, France, awarded Righteous Among the Nations title (Yad Vashem Archives)

Pastor Charles Cadier, CIMADE, Chaplain, French concentration camps, Southern France, helped prisoners (Fabre, 1970, p. 67)

Pastor Paul Chapal● and wife, Odette Chapal●, awarded Righteous Among the Nations title September 20, 1992 (Yad Vashem Archives; Gutman, 2003, pp. 136-137)

Pastor Francois Chazel●, Vérbon et Rousses, Cevennes, France, awarded Righteous Among the Nations title December 22, 1983 (Yad Vashem Archives; Gutman, 2003, p. 145)

Liliane Chazel●, Vérbon et Rousses, Cevennes, France, awarded Righteous Among the Nations title December 22, 1983 (Yad Vashem Archives; Gutman, 2003, p. 145)

Pastor Robert Cook●, Vabre, Department of Corrèze, France, awarded Righteous Among the Nations title July 16, 1990 (Yad Vashem Archives; Gutman, 2003, pp. 159-160)

Pastor Curtet●, Fay-sur-Lignon (Haute Loire), near Le Chambon-sur-Lignon, southern France, hid and sheltered Jews, awarded Righteous Among the Nations title September 10, 1990 (Yad Vashem Archives; Gutman, 2003, p. 173; Zuccotti, 1993, p. 229; Joseph Bass Report [n.n.], ccxviii-84, 3)

Suzanne Curtet●, wife of Pastor Curtet, Fay-sur-Lignon (Haute Loire), near Le Chambon-sur-Lignon, southern France, hid and sheltered Jews, awarded Righteous Among the Nations title September 10, 1990 (Yad Vashem Archives; Gutman, 2003, p. 173)

Pastor Emile Dallière● and wife, Marie Dallière●, Charmes, Department of Ardèche, France, awarded Righteous Among the Nations title July 29, 1990 (Yad Vashem Archives; Gutman, 2003, pp. 174-175)

Pastor Louis Dallière● and wife, Marie Dallière●, Charmes, Department of Ardèche, France, awarded Righteous Among the Nations title December 14, 1994 (Yad Vashem Archives; Gutman, 2003, p. 175)

Pastor Charles Delizy●, Freycenent de Saint-Jeures, near Le Chambon-sur-Lignon, France, awarded Righteous Among the Nations title December 26, 1988 (Yad Vashem Archives; Gutman, 2003, p. 190; Halle, 1979)

Pastor and Mrs. Albert DeLord●, Carmax, Tarn, France, awarded Righteous Among the Nations title September 20, 1985 (Yad Vashem Archives; Gutman, 2003, pp. 190-191)

Pastor Roland De Pury● and Jacqueline de Pury●, France, awarded Righteous Among the Nations title May 13, 1976 (Yad Vashem Archives; Gutman, 2003, pp. 194-195)

Pastor André de Robert●, France, awarded Righteous Among the Nations title January 5, 1984 (Yad Vashem Archives; Gutman, 2003, p. 196)

Pastor J. Delpech, Comité d’Inter-Mouvement Aupres des Evacués (CIMADE; Gutman, 2003)

Pastor Marc Donadille● and wife, Françoise Donadille●, Saint-Privat-de-Vallonge, Department of Lozère, France, awarded Righteous Among the Nations title March 26, 1986 (Yad Vashem Archives; Gutman, 2003, p. 204)

Pastor Roland Dubois●, France, awarded Righteous Among the Nations title (Yad Vashem Archives; Gutman, 2003)

Pastor Raymond Eugène Ducasse●, Aix-en-Provence (Bouches du Rhône), France, awarded Righteous Among the Nations title August 2, 1999 (Yad Vashem Archives; Gutman, 2003, p. 210)

Pastor André Dumas●, Comité d’Inter-Mouvement Aupres des Evacués (CIMADE), Rivesaltes French detention camp, Pyrenees Orientales, France, awarded Righteous Among the Nations title December 26, 1994 (Yad Vashem Archives; Gutman, 2003, pp. 214-215)

Pastor Edmond Evrard● (Baptist pastor), Ida Evrard●, and sons, Daniel Evrard● and Louis Evrard●, Nice, Alpes-Maritime, France, awarded Righteous Among the Nations title December 26, 1994 (Yad Vashem Archives; Gutman, 2003, p. 230)

Pastor Idebert Exbrayat● and wife, Yvonne Exbrayat●, Rodez, the capital of the Department of Aveyron, France, awarded Righteous Among the Nations title September 13, 1979 (Yad Vashem Archives; Gutman, 2003, pp. 230-231)

Pastor Pierre Fouchier●, France, awarded Righteous Among the Nations title (Yad Vashem Archives; Gutman, 2003)

Pastor André Gall● and wife, Fleur Gall●, Florac, Cevennes, Department of Lozere, France, awarded Righteous Among the Nations title (Yad Vashem Archives; Gutman, 2003, pp. 257-258)

Pastor Charles Guillon●, Mayor of Le Chambon-sur-Lignon, Department of Haute-Loire, France, secretary general Protestant Organization, World Secretary of the Young Men’s Christian Association (YMCA), Comité d’Inter-Mouvement Aupres des Evacués (CIMADE), France, awarded Righteous Among the Nations title May 5, 1991 (Yad Vashem Archives; Gutman, 2003, p. 291)

Pastor Paul Haering● and wife Suzanne Haering●, Carmaux (Tarn), France, awarded Righteous Among the Nations title (Yad Vashem Archives; Gutman, 2003, p. 296)

Pastor André Hammel●, France, awarded Righteous Among the Nations title (Yad Vashem Archives; Gutman, 2003, p. 297)

Pastor Heuze, Reformed Church of Marseiles, France; interned and deported (Gutman, 2003)

Pastor Jeannet, France (Gutman, 2003)

Pastor Robert Joseph●, Clarensac, Department of Gard, Cévenol Plateau, France, awarded Righteous Among the Nations title January 5, 1984 (Yad Vashem Archives; Gutman, 2003, p. 315)

Pastor Jean Joussellin●, Paris, Verberie Department of Oise, France, Council of Protestant Summer Camps, awarded Righteous Among the Nations title February 21, 1980 (Yad Vashem Archives; Gutman, 2003, p. 317)

Pastor Lauga, Director of Religious Studies, Home for Mentally Challenged Children, France (Gutman, 2003)

Pastor Roland Leenhardt●, Protestant Church, Tence (near Le Chambon-sur-Lignon), France, awarded Righteous Among the Nations title January 8, 1990 (Yad Vashem Archives; Gutman, 2003, p. 351)

Pastor Jean Séverin Lemaire●, Marseilles, France, Pastor of the Evangelist Congregation in Marseilles, France, awarded Righteous Among the Nations title February 19, 1976 (Yad Vashem Archives; Gutman, 2003, p. 356)

Pastor Raoul Lhermet●, Saint-André de Valborgne, Le Chambon-sur-Lignon, Department of Haute-Loire, France, awarded Righteous Among the Nations title January 17, 1985 (Yad Vashem Archives; Gutman, 2003, p. 361)

Pastor Liotard, France

Pastor Luigi, Camares, Gard, France

Pastor Henri Manen●, Chaplain, Les Milles detention camp, Aix-en-Provence, France (CIMADE), and wife, Alice Manen●, awarded Righteous Among the Nations title March 20, 1986 (Yad Vashem Archives; Gutman, 2003, pp. 370-371)

Pastor Gaston Charles Martin● and wife Simone Martin, St. Germaine de Calberte (Lozère), Plateau Cévenol, south Central France, awarded Righteous Among the Nations title September 6, 1989 (Yad Vashem Archives; Gutman, 2003, pp. 377-378)

Pastor Jacques Martin●+, Ganges (Héralt), France, member Comité d’Inter-Mouvement Aupres des Evacués (CIMADE), active in underground rescue network CIMADE in saving Jewish refugees; found hiding places among local families; provided lifesaving documents; was arrested by French authorities; awarded Righteous Among the Nations title June 22, 1998 (Yad Vashem Archives; Gutman, 2003, pp. 378-379)

Jacqueline Martin●, wife of Pastor Jacques Martin, Ganges (Héralt), France, member Comité d’Inter-Mouvement Aupres des Evacués (CIMADE), active in underground rescue network CIMADE in saving Jewish refugees; found hiding places among local families; provided lifesaving documents; awarded Righteous Among the Nations title June 22, 1998 (Yad Vashem Archives; Gutman, 2003, pp. 378-379)

Pastor Charles and Madeleine Monod●, member of Protestant rescue network in Cannes, France, awarded Righteous Among the Nations title January 7, 1996 (Yad Vashem Archives; Gutman, 2003, p. 400)

Pastor André Morel●+, Gurs detention center (1941-1942), Le Chambon-sur-Lignon (1943-1944), France, member of CIMADE, awarded Righteous Among the Nations title September 23, 1990 (Yad Vashem Archives; Gutman, 2003, p. 402)

Pastor Henri Nick●, Pierre Nick● and Odile Nick●, France, awarded Righteous Among the Nations title May 5, 1992 (Yad Vashem Archives; Gutman, 2003, p. 410)

Pastor Laurent Olivés● and Suzanne Olivés●, Vérbon et Rousses, France, awarded Righteous Among the Nations title May 6, 1996 (Yad Vashem Archives; Gutman, 2003, p. 414)

Pastor Marcel Pasche●, Protestant Reformed Church, Roubaix (Nord), France, awarded Righteous Among the Nations title August 3, 1992 (Yad Vashem Archives; Gutman, 2003, p. 426)

Marguerite Pasquine●, France, awarded Righteous Among the Nations title (Yad Vashem Archives; Gutman, 2003)

Evangelina Pean-Pages●, France, awarded Righteous Among the Nations title (Yad Vashem Archives; Gutman, 2003)

Pastor Edmond Peloux●, St. Jean-du-Gard, Department of Gard, Plateau Chevenol, France, awarded Righteous Among the Nations title January 5, 1984 (Yad Vashem Archives; Gutman, 2003, pp. 432, 449)

Pastor Poivre, Le Chambon area, France (Joseph Bass Report [n.d.]; CDJC, CCXVIII-84, 3; Zuccotti, 1993, p. 229)

Pastor Roland Polex●, St. Jean-du-Gard, Department of Gard, Plateau Cévenol, France, awarded Righteous Among the Nations title January 5, 1984 (Yad Vashem Archives; Gutman, 2003, pp. 432, 449)

Pastor Jacques Rennes, CIMADE, Chaplain in French concentration camps (Fabre, 1970, p. 67)

Pastor Franck Robert●, Meyrueis (Department of Lozère), Plateau Cévenol, France, awarded Righteous Among the Nations title (Yad Vashem Archives; Gutman, 2003, p. 472)

Pastor Henri Roser●, Prague, Czechoslovakia, awarded Righteous Among the Nations title (Yad Vashem Archives; Gutman, 2003, p. 481)

Viviane Roullet●, France, awarded Righteous Among the Nations title (Yad Vashem Archives; Gutman, 2003)

Olga St. Blancat-Baumgarten, Belfort, France, Captain of the Salvation Army

Minister Elizabeth Schmidt, CIMADE, minister in French concentration camps in Southern France (Fabre, 1970, pp. 73-74)

Pastor Tartier● and Mme. Tartier●, St.-Laurent-du-Pape, Department of Ardèche, France, awarded Righteous Among the Nations title October 26, 1989 (Yad Vashem Archives; Gutman, 2003, pp. 513-514)

Monsignor Pierre-Marie Theas●, Bishop of Montauban (Episcopal), France, awarded Righteous Among the Nations title July 8, 1969 (Yad Vashem Archives; Gutman, 2003, pp. 517-518; Halle, 1979)

Pastor Édouard Theis●+, CIMADE, director, College Cevenol, Le Chambon-sur-Lignon, Department of Haute-Loire, France, arrested and interned by Germans for helping Jews, awarded Righteous Among the Nations title July 15, 1981 (Yad Vashem Archives; Gutman, 2003, p. 519; Hallie, 1979, pp. 4-7, 12, 22-44, 61, 82-85, 90-92, 177, 232-233; Zuccotti, 1993, pp. 221, 229)

Louise Theis, France (Gutman, 2003; Halle, 1979)

Mildred Theis●, CIMADE, wife of Pastor Edouard Theis, Le Chambon-sur-Lignon, Department of Haute-Loire, France, awarded Righteous Among the Nations title July 15, 1981 (Yad Vashem Archives; Gutman, 2003, p. 519; Hallie, 1979, pp. 5, 12, 27, 82, 251; Zuccotti, 1993, pp. 221, 229)

Paul Tinel● and Annie Tinel●, Saint-Germain-de-Calbert, France, Salvation Army, awarded Righteous Among the Nations title August 30, 1988 (Yad Vashem Archives; Gutman, 2003, pp. 523-524)

Pastor Pierre Charles Toureille●, Lunel (Hérault), Marseilles, France; vice chairman Czech Aid Organization; vice president, Nîmes Committee (Comité de Nîmes), Chief Minister of Foreign Protestant Refugees in Southern France, awarded Righteous Among the Nations title November 6, 1973 (Yad Vashem Archives; Favrem 1970; Gutman, 2003, p. 525)

Pastor André Pascal Trocmé●, CIMADE, Le Chambon-sur-Lignon, Cevenol Normal School, Department of Haute-Loire, France, awarded Righteous Among the Nations title January 5, 1971 (Yad Vashem Archives; Gutman, 2003, pp. 529-530; Hallie, 1979, pp. 16-24, 49-72, 99-107, 221-231, 256-259; Zuccotti, 1993, pp. 212, 228-230, 246)

Daniel Trocmé●*, son of André and Magda Trocmé, CIMADE, Le Chambon-sur-Lignon, head of Maison des Roches (children’s home), deported and murdered in the Majdanek death camp, awarded Righteous Among the Nations title March 18, 1976 (Yad Vashem Archives; Gutman, 2003, pp. 529-530; Hallie, 1979, pp. 168, 181, 205-217, 219, 221, 247, 259; Zuccotti, 1993, p. 230)

Magda Trocmé●, wife of Pastor André Pascal Trocmé, CIMADE, Le Chambon-sur-Lignon, Cevenol Normal School, Department of Haute-Loire, France, awarded Righteous Among the Nations title January 5, 1971 (Yad Vashem Archives; Gutman, 2003, pp. 529-530; Hallie, 1979, pp. 19-21, 64-67, 149-150, 152-156, 161-163, 195-196, 259, 265; Zuccotti, 1993, p. 229)

Pastor Paul Tzaut● and Marguerite Tzaut●, France, Salvation Army, awarded Righteous Among the Nations title July 10, 1973 (Yad Vashem Archives; Gutman, 2003, p. 531)

Pastor Paul Vergara● and Marcelle Vergara●+, France, awarded Righteous Among the Nations title August 30, 1988 (Yad Vashem Archives; Gutman, 2003, pp. 538-539)

Pastor Vienny

Pastor Henricus Vullinghs, France

Pastor Wasserfallen, Viane, Tarn

Pastor Charles Westphal●, France, awarded Righteous Among the Nations title (Yad Vashem Archives; Gutman, 2003)

Pastor Clayton Williams, American Church in Paris, France (Favre, 1970, p. 62)

Germany

Abegg Rescue Network, Berlin, Germany (Gutman, 1990; Gutman, 2004, p. 67)

Elisabeth Abegg● (b. 1882), Quaker, hid, sheltered and protected numerous Jews in her Berlin apartment, worked with the Quakers in finding shelter and helping persecuted Jews, awarded Righteous Among the Nations title May 23, 1967 (Yad Vashem Archives)

Committee of Christian Brotherly Love (Sozietät der Christlichen Nächstenlieb), Würtemberg, Germany, Confessing Church, see also Fraternal Council (Bruderrat), Christian group that helped Jews hide from Nazi authorities (Gutman, 2007, pp. 85-86, 94, 127-128, 155)

Elizabeth Goes●, Gebensheim/Würtemberg, Germany, awarded Righteous Among the Nations title (Yad Vashem Archives; Gutman, 2007, p. 94)

Pastor Eugen Stöffler●, Köngen/Würtemberg, Germany, awarded Righteous Among the Nations title (Yad Vashem Archives; Gutman, 2007, pp. 154-155)

Johanna Stöffler●, Köngen/Würtemberg, Germany, awarded Righteous Among the Nations title (Yad Vashem Archives; Gutman, 2007, pp. 154-155)

Ruth Stöffler●, Köngen/Würtemberg, Germany, awarded Righteous Among the Nations title (Yad Vashem Archives; Gutman, 2007, pp. 154-155)

Pastor Alfred Digler●, Köngen/Würtemberg, Germany, awarded Righteous Among the Nations title (Yad Vashem Archives; Gutman, 2007, pp. 84-85, 127-128)

Louise Digler●, Köngen/Würtemberg, Germany, awarded Righteous Among the Nations title (Yad Vashem Archives; Gutman, 2007, pp. 84-85, 127-128)

Theodore Dipper, Köngen/Würtemberg, Germany, awarded Righteous Among the Nations title (Yad Vashem Archives; Gutman, 2007, pp. 84-85)

Pastor Otto Mörike●, Köngen/Würtemberg, Germany, awarded Righteous Among the Nations title (Yad Vashem Archives; Gutman, 2007, pp. 84-85, 127-128)

Gertrude Morike●, Köngen/Würtemberg, Germany, awarded Righteous Among the Nations title (Yad Vashem Archives; Gutman, 2007, pp. 84-85, 127-128)

Emergency Association for Protestant Pastors (Pfarrernotbund), established 1933 (Gutman, 2007, p. 122)

Pastor Martin Niemoller, founder, anti-Nazi activist (Gutman, 2007, p. 122)

Founder Dean Probst Heinrich Krl Ernst Grüber●+ (1891-1976), head of rescue and aid network founded in 1938, awarded Righteous Among the Nations title July 28, 1964 (Yad Vashem Archives; Gutman, 2007, pp. 97-99)

Pastor Hermann Mass●+ (1877-1970), Heidelberg, Germany, major activist in Grüber Bureau, member Emergency Association for Protestant Pastors, sent to French labor camp in 1944, awarded Righteous Among the Nations title (Yad Vashem Archives; Gutman, 2007, pp. 97-99, 122)

Fraternal Council (Bruderrat), Confessing Church, Würtemberg, Germany, rescue network (Gutman, 2007, pp. 84-85, 127-128), see also Community of Christian Brotherly Love

Informal rescue operation.  Saved Jews in Würtemberg area of Germany.

Pastor Alfred Dilger●, awarded Righteous Among the Nations title (Yad Vashem Archives; Gutman, 2007, pp. 84-85)

Luise Dilger●, wife of Pastor Alfred Dilger, awarded Righteous Among the Nations title (Yad Vashem Archives; Gutman, 2007, pp. 84-85)

Theodor Dipper (Gutman, 2007, pp. 84-85)

Pastor Otto Mörike● (b. 1897), Würtemberg, Germany, with wife, Gertrude Morike, hid and sheltered Jews in their home in the Village of Flacht, awarded Righteous Among the Nations title November 3, 1970 (Yad Vashem Archives; Gutman, 2007, pp. 84-85, 127-128)

Gertrude Mörike● (b. 1904), wife of Pastor Otto Mörike, Würtemberg, Germany, hid and sheltered Jews in their home in the Village of Flacht, awarded Righteous Among the Nations title November 3, 1970 (Yad Vashem Archives; Gutman, 2007, pp. 84-85, 127-128)

Grüber Bureau, Berlin, established November 1938; other offices in Thuringen, Cologne, Leipzig; aid and rescue network founded by Heinrich Grüber in Berlin (Gutman, 2005, pp. 97-99, 122, 155-156)

Founder Dean Probst Heinrich Karl Ernst Grüber●+ (1891-1976), head of rescue and aid network founded in 1938, awarded Righteous Among the Nations title July 28, 1964 (Yad Vashem Archives; Gutman, 2007, pp. 97-99)

Pastor Hermann Mass●+ (1877-1970), Heidelberg, Germany, major activist in Grüber Bureau, member Emergency Association for Protestant Pastors, sent to French labor camp in 1944, awarded Righteous Among the Nations title (Yad Vashem Archives; Gutman, 2007, pp. 97-99, 122)

Vicar Katarina Staritz, Breslau office, Germany

Pastor Eitel-Friedrich von Rabenau

Reverend Werner Sylten●* (1893-1942; killed), assistant to founder, leader, Heinrich Grüber, arrested for aiding Jews, deported to Dachau concentration camp, murdered August 26, 1942, awarded Righteous Among the Nations title October 16, 1979 (Yad Vashem Archives; Gutman, 2007, pp. 155-156)

Dr. Franz Kaufmann Rescue Network, Germany, Dahlem Community of the Confessing Church, rescue and relief group that hid, sheltered, fed and clothed Jews, and protected them from arrest and deportation

Dr. Franz Kaufmann● (converted Jew), executed, awarded Righteous Among the Nations title (Yad Vashem Archives)

Helene Jacobs● (b. 1906), wife of Dr. Franz Kaufmann, awarded Righteous Among the Nations title (Yad Vashem Archives)

Protestant Provisional Church Administration

Swedish Protestant Church
, Landhaustrasse, Wilmersdorf Section, Berlin, Germany, hid, sheltered and protected Jews in church (Gutman, 2007, p. 516)

Minister Erik Myrgen●, Swedish Protestant Church, Wilmserdorf, Berlin, Germany, awarded Righteous Among the Nations title December 11, 1986 (Yad Vashem Archives; Gutman, 2007, p. 516)

Vicar Erik Perwe, Swedish Protestant Church, Wilmersdorf Section, Berlin, Germany, and wife Maria

Erik Wesslend, Swedish Protestant Church, Wilmersdorf Section, Berlin, Germany

Vide Ohmann, Swedish Protestant Church, Wilmersdorf Section, Berlin, Germany

Individual Protestant Clergy - Germany:

Prelate Dr. Hermann Maas●*(Killed Heidelberg, Germany), Berlin (Grüber Bureau), Germany

Bishop Hans Meiser, Munich

Pastor Johannes Boettcher●

Pastor Brecht, Caln

Pastor Günther Brandt● (b. 1912), Berlin, Germany, saved Jews while serving as Graves-registration-officer, awarded Righteous Among the Nations title June 26, 1980 (Yad Vashem Archives; Gutman, 2007, p. 77)

Pastor Burckhardt, Confessing Church

Pastor Hermann Diem, Würtemburg, Germany

Pastor Alfred Dilger●, Cannstatt, Würtemberg, Germany, member Bruderrat (Fraternal Council) of the Confessing Church, awarded Righteous Among the Nations title November 5, 1991 (Yad Vashem Archives; Gutman, 2007, pp. 84-85, 127-128)

Louise Dilger●, wife of Pastor Alfred Dilger, Cannstatt, Würtemberg, Germany, member Bruderrat (Fraternal Council) of the Confessing Church, awarded Righteous Among the Nations title November 5, 1991 (Yad Vashem Archives; Gutman, 2007, pp. 84-85, 127-128)Theodore Dipper, member Bruderrat (Fraternal Council) of the Confessing Church, Würtemberg, Germany (Gutman, 2007, pp. 84-85)

Pastor Walter Disselnkötter●, Confessing Church, Zuchen, Germany, hid Jewish family, awarded Righteous Among the Nations title May 20, 1996 (Yad Vashem Archives; Gutman, 2007, p. 85)

Anna Disselnkötter●, wife of Pastor Walter Disselnkötter, Confessing Church, Zuchen, Germany, hid Jewish family, awarded Righteous Among the Nations title May 20, 1996 (Yad Vashem Archives; Gutman, 2007, p. 85)

Elizabeth Goes●, member, Sozietät der Christlichen Nächstenliebe (Community of Christian Brotherly Love), Würtemberg, Germany; hid, sheltered and protected Jewish family, awarded Righteous Among the Nations title November 5, 1991 (Yad Vashem Archives; Gutman, 2005, p. 94)

Mrs. Dr. Goldmund, Bad Polzin

Pastor Helmut Gollwitzer, Berlin, Germany

Richard Gölz●+ (b. 1887), parish pastor, and wife, Hildegard Gölz●, Wankheim, Würtemberg, Germany; rescue Jews; hid, sheltered and protected Jews in their home; Richard Gölz was arrested by Gestapo and deported to a forced labor camp, Welzheim, near Stuttgart, Germany, awarded Righteous Among the Nations title November 5, 1991 (Yad Vashem Archives; Gutman, 2007, pp. 94-95)

Founder Dean Probst Heinrich Karl Ernst Grüber●+ (1891-1976), head of rescue and aid network founded in 1938, awarded Righteous Among the Nations title July 28, 1964 (Yad Vashem Archives; Gutman, 2007, pp. 97-99)

Pastor Harr, Stuttgart-Sillenbuch, Germany

Pastor Heinrich Held●

Pastor Helmut Hesse Barmen/Eberfeld, Germany

Pastor Hermann Hesse Barmen/Eberfeld, Germany

Pastor Jannasch, Confessing Church

Pastor Hermann Mass●+ (1877-1970), Heidelberg, Germany, major activist in Grüber Bureau, member Emergency Association for Protestant Pastors, sent to French labor camp in 1944, awarded Righteous Among the Nations title (Yad Vashem Archives; Gutman, 2007, pp. 97-99, 122)

Pastor Willian Mensching●, wife Hanni, daughter, Petzen, Germany

Pastor Otto Mörike● (b. 1897), and wife, Gertrude Mörike● (b. 1904), Korntal, Würtemberg, Germany, hid and sheltered Jews in home in the Village of Flacht, awarded Righteous Among the Nations title November 3, 1970 (Yad Vashem Archives; Gutman, 2007, pp. 84-85, 127-128)

Pastor Müller, Stuttgart, Germany

Pastor Martin Niemoller, founder, Emergency Association for Protestant Pastors (Pfarrernotbund), anti-Nazi activist (Gutman, 2007, p. 122)

Pastor Erik Perwe, Victoria Church (Swedish church), Wilmersdorf Section, Berlin, Germany (Gutman, 2007, p. 516)

Harald Poelchau●, and wife, Dorothy Poelchau●, prison chaplain, Pölötzensee Jail, Berlin, Germany, helped hide Jews in their personal residence, awarded Righteous Among the Nations title November 30, 1971 (Yad Vashem Archives; Gutman, 2007, p. 138)

Pastor Rapp, Owen

Superintendent Rott, Confessing Church

Pastor Julius Seebass●, wife Herta, daughters, Borneke, Germany

Vicar Katarina Staritz, Confessing Church, (Grüber Bureau), Breslau, Germany (Gutman, 2007, pp. 97-99, 122, 155-156)

Pastor Eugene Stöffler●, with wife, Johanna Stöffler●, and daughter, Ruth Stöffler●, Confessing Church, Village of Königen, Würtemberg, Germany; member Sozietät der Christlichen Nächstenliebe (Community of Christian Brotherly Love); helped save Jews from arrest and deportation during the period of 1943-1945, awarded Righteous Among the Nations title March 30, 1998 (Yad Vashem Archives; Gutman, 2007, pp. 154-155)

Pastor Johannes Strecker, Wusterhause Vicarage, Pomerania Village, Germany

Reverend Werner Sylten●* (1893-1942; killed), Grüber Bureau, assistant to founder, leader, Heinrich Grüber, arrested for aiding Jews, deported to Dachau concentration camp, murdered August 26, 1942, awarded Righteous Among the Nations title October 16, 1979 (Yad Vashem Archives; Gutman, 2007, pp. 155-156)

Pastor Horst Symanowski, Germany

Pastor Julius von Jan

Pastor Friedrich von Rabenau, Apostle Paul Church (Grüber Bureau), Schoenberg, Germany (Gutman, 2007)

Pastor Walter Wendland●, with daughter, Ruth Wendland●, and mother, Agnes Wendland●, Germany, belonged to gropt who helped Jews, awarded Righteous Among the Nations title (Yad Vashem Archives; Gutman, 2007, p. 162)

Pastor Zeller, Waiblingen

Hungary

Church, Szabadság Square, Budapest, Hungary

Minister Dr. János Victor●, awarded Righteous Among the Nations title August 2, 1994, and Mrs. János Victor●, awarded Righteous Among the Nations title August 29, 2001, hid Jews in Church during German occupation and Arrow Cross rule of Budapest (Yad Vashem Archives; Gutman, 2007, p. 340)

Good Shepard Committee (Protestant; A Jó Pásztor Bizottsag), Budapest, Hungary, established October 1942, sponsored by the Universal Convent of the Reformed Church of Hungary; worked with Hungarian Evangelical Church; set up Protestant Orphans’ Home in Noszvaj and Budapest; hid and sheltered Jews in Budapest during Arrow Cross rule, after October 1944; operated as Section B, International Red Cross in Budapest in Fall 1944 until the liberation of Budapest in January 1945; operated 32 protected residences for Jews; 1,500 children and 500 adult Jews were saved (Braham, 1991, pp. 492-494, 897, 1187, 1197-1198; Gutman, 1990; Gutman, 2007, p. 201, 249, 232-233, 261, 327)

Reverend József Éliás, leader (Braham, 1991, pp. 492-493, 1187, 1197-1199, 1203, 1362)

Dr. Reverend Gábor Jenö Sztehló●, in charge of Labor Servicemen and Converts, awarded Righteous Among the Nations title January 30, 1972 (Yad Vashem Archives; Braham, 1991, p. 1187; Gutman, 2007, pp. 326-327)

Reverend Gyula Muraközy, director of the Committee (Braham, 1991, p. 1197)

Dr. Imre Kadar, secretary of the Committee (Braham, 1991, p. 1197)

Deacon Emil Hajos (Braham, 1991, p. 1197)

Reverend Dr. Károly Dobos●, director, Good Shepard, awarded Righteous Among the Nations title January 27, 1997 (Yad Vashem Archives; Gutman, 2007, p. 201)

Mrs. Károly Dobos● (Ilona), awarded Righteous Among the Nations title January 27, 1997 (Yad Vashem Archives; Gutman, 2007, p. 201)

Emil Koren● (Lutheran), awarded Righteous Among the Nations title March 8, 1987 (Yad Vashem Archives; Gutman, 2007, p. 261)

Magda Koren●, awarded Righteous Among the Nations title March 8, 1987 (Yad Vashem Archives; Gutman, 2007, p. 261)

Dr. Ferenc Benkö (Braham, 1991, p. 1197)

Andor Borbas (Braham, 1991, p. 1197)

Reverend Lajos Nagybczoni-Nagy●, awarded Righteous Among the Nations title October 23, 1996, and wife Margit Nagy, hid Jewish children and their mothers; provided Baptismal certificates; worked with Raoul Wallenberg in Swedish protected houses (Yad Vashem Archives; Gutman, 2007, p. 287)

Reverend Sándor Boros (Braham, 1991, p. 1197)

Irén Homonny●, Department A, ICRC, hid 30 Jewish children in their home in Budapest, awarded Righteous Among the Nations title January 27, 1997 (Yad Vashem Archives; Gutman, 2007, pp. 232-233)

Mária Homonny●, Department A, ICRC, hid 30 Jewish children in their home in Budapest, awarded Righteous Among the Nations title January 27, 1997 (Yad Vashem Archives; Gutman, 2007, pp. 232-233)

Andras Keken●, Lutheran minister, Deák Square Church, Budapest, Hungary, baptized Jews to protect them from arrest and deportation during German occupation and Arrow Cross reign; distributed Baptismal certificates to Budapest Jews; hid Jews in his church; awarded Righteous Among the Nations title June 9, 1994 (Yad Vashem Archives; Gutman, 2007, p. 249)

Ilona Tukka●, director, YMCA Girls Home, Budapest, awarded Righteous Among the Nations title December 2, 1999 (Yad Vashem Archives; Gutman, 2007, p. 333)

Scottish Mission (Protestant), Budapest, Hungary (Sixth District), the Scottish Mission was operating with the protection of the Swedish legation.  Swedish diplomat Raoul Wallenberg● worked closely with the Scottish Mission Gutman, 2007, p.287)

Jane Haining●+* (1897-1944), Matron Girls’ Home.  Saved Jews, deported to Auschwitz, murdered by starvation July 17, 1944 at age 47, awarded Righteous Among the Nations title (Yad Vashem Archives; Gutman, 2007, p. 170)

FatherLajos Nagybaczoni-Nagy● (Protestant), Scottish Mission, Sixth District, Budapest, hid, sheltered and protected numerous Jewish children, provided false Baptismal Certificates during the German occupation and Arrow Cross rule of Budapest, was able to secure protection of the Swedish legation and Raoul Wallenbeg, Nagy hid Jewish children in his residence, awarded Righteous Among the Nations title October 23, 1996 (Yad Vashem Archives; Gutman, 2007, p. 287)

Individual Clergy (Hungary) – Protestant:

Reverend Albert Bereczky●, Calvinist Church, Pozsoyi Street, Budapest; hid Jews in church, delivered copy of Auschwitz Report to leaders of churches in Budapest, awarded Righteous Among the Nations title January 23, 1996 (Yad Vashem Archives; Braham, 1991, pp. 1119-1120; Gutman, 2007, pp. 187-188)

Pastor Karoly & Ilona Dobos●, director, Good Shepard, Budapest, awarded Righteous Among the Nations title January 27, 1997 (Yad Vashem Archives; Gutman, p. 201)

Archbishop Andor Járosi●*, head, Lutheran Church, Northern Transylvania, 1941-1944, Kolozsvár/Cluj, at great risk to himself and his family he hid and protected Jews in his home, awarded Righteous Among the Nations title September 15, 1991 (Yad Vashem Archives; Gutman, 2007, pp. 242-243)

Laura Járosi●, wife of Archbishop Andor Járosi, awarded Righteous Among the Nations title (Yad Vashem Archives; Gutman, 2007)

Dr. Bela Kapi, Lutheran

Pastor Andras Keken●, Lutheran minister, Deák Square Church, Budapest, Hungary, baptized Jews to protect them from arrest and deportation during German occupation and Arrow Cross reign; distributed Baptismal certificates to Budapest Jews; hid Jews in his church; awarded Righteous Among the Nations title June 9, 1994 (Yad Vashem Archives; Gutman, 2007, p. 249)

Pastor Emil Koren●, Lutheran Minister, Budapest, managed children’s residence for the Good Shepard Rescue Network in Budapest, hid Jewish children, awarded Righteous Among the Nations title March 8, 1987 (Yad Vashem Archives; Gutman, p. 261)

Magda Koren●, wife of Pastor Emil Koren, Budapest, managed children’s residence for the Good Shepard Rescue Network in Budapest, hid Jewish children, awarded Righteous Among the Nations title March 8, 1987 (Yad Vashem Archives; Gutman, p. 261)

Reverend Elek Máthé, Budapest, Hungary, hid Jewish family in Budapest, worked with the International Red Cross (Gutman, 2007, p. 288-289)

Reverend Lázló Michnai● (Adventist), Budapest, Hungary, saved the lives of 15 Jews during the German occupation and Arrow Cross rule of Budapest, awarded Righteous Among the Nations title May 5, 1964 (Yad Vashem Archives; Gutman, 2007, pp. 281-282)

FatherLajos Nagybaczoni-Nagy● (Protestant), Scottish Mission, Sixth District, Budapest, hid, sheltered and protected numerous Jewish children, provided false Baptismal Certificates during the German occupation and Arrow Cross rule of Budapest, was able to secure protection of the Swedish legation and Raoul Wallenbeg, Nagy hid Jewish children in his residence, awarded Righteous Among the Nations title October 23, 1996 (Yad Vashem Archives; Gutman, 2007, p. 287)

Pastor Imre Szabo●, Juliana School

Reverend Dr. Gábor Jenö Sztehló●, Good Shepard Committee, Budapest, awarded Righteous Among the Nations title January 30, 1972 (Yad Vashem Archives; Gutman, 2007, pp. 326-327)

Jarros Vasarhelyi, Reformed Church

Pastor János Victor●, Church Szabadsag Square, Budapest, Hungary, awarded Righteous Among the Nations title (Yad Vashem Archives; Gutman, 2007, pp. 340-341)

Mrs. János Victor, Church Szabadsag Square, Budapest, Hungary, (Yad Vashem Archives; Gutman, 2007, pp. 340-341)

Italy

Pastor Daniele Cupertino● & Teresa Cupertino (Adventist), awarded Righteous Among the Nations title May 26, 1983 (Yad Vashem Archives; Gutman, 2007, pp. 346-347)

The Netherlands

Dutch-Paris Rescue Network/Underground, The Netherlands, France, Belgium, Spain & Switzerland (affiliated with Seventh Day Adventist; De Jong, Het Koninkrijk, VII/s, pp. 894-895, IX/I pp. 543, 549, 552-554; Ford, 1999, pp. 45-49, 60, 68-69, 75, 139-150; Gutman, 1990; Gutman, 2004; Moore, 2010, pp. 58-64, 70, 315)

Johan Hendrik Weidner●+†, founder, awarded Righteous Among the Nations title (Yad Vashem Archives; Gutman, 2004)

Gabrielle Weidner+ (sister; Gutman, 2004)

Father John Ann de Stegge●, awarded Righteous Among the Nations title (Yad Vashem Archives; Gutman, 2004)

Council of Netherlands in Toulouse (Gutman, 2004)

Little Sisters of the Poor (Petites Soeurs des Pauvres; Gutman, 2004)

Jacques Rens+ (Gutman, 2004)

Consul Janse+, Office Néelandais, representing the Netherlands(Gutman, 2004)

Consul Herman Laatsman+, representing the Netherlands(Moore, 2010)

Suzy Kraay+ (Gutman, 2004)

Paul Veerman+ (Gutman, 2004)

Consul Arie Seventer, Offices Néerlandais, representing the Netherlands(Gutman, 2004)

Solomon (Sally) Noach (Jewish; Gutman, 2004)

Dr. Gabriel Nahas, MD+ (Gutman, 2004)

Aarts+ (Dutchman), Offices Néerlandais (Gutman, 2004)

Staff Seventh Day Adventist College, Colognes (Gutman, 2004)

B. M. (Benno) Nijkerk (Bolle-Groep; Jewish; Gutman, 2004)

Anne McLaine (Moore, 2010, p. 315)

Frits Iordens (Moore, 2010, p. 315)

Pastor Pieter Miedema Rescue Network, Friesland, Netherlands (De Vries, p. 3; Stein, 1998, pp. 57-74)

Pastor Miedema began hiding and sheltering Jewish children in April 1943.  Pastor Miedena and his wife were demounced for this activity and went into hiding until the liberation of Holland.

Pastor Pieter Miedema (Stein, 1998)

Mrs. Miedema (Stein, 1998)

Pastor Moulin Rescue Network, Blija (Friesland), Netherlands (Bekkenkamp,2000, pp. 79-80; Moore, 2010, p. 244)

Nieuw Bertha (town), province of Groningen, Netherlands

Reverend Sebastiaan J.● and Johanna (Appels) Ader

Arie Sparreboom, Rotterdam

Johanna Sparreboom, Rotterdam

Dirk Appels, Driebergen

Nelly Margot Driebergen

Pastor Leedert Overduin, Enschede Rescue Network, Overijssel, province of Friesland, The Netherlands; network saved 700-800 Jews, worked with Enschede police

Minister Leedert Overduin● (Calvinist), head, founder, awarded Righteous Among the Nations title (Yad Vashem Archives)

Sieg Menko, chairman, Jewish Council Enchede (Jewish)

Maartje Overduin

Corrie Overduin

Cornelius (Kees) Moulijn●, Blija, Friesland, awarded Righteous Among the Nations title (Yad Vashem Archives)

Annagnita (Anneke) Moulijn, Blija, Friesland

Pastor Jacob Kalma●, awarded Righteous Among the Nations title (Yad Vashem Archives)

Pastor F. W. Tjadens Rescue Network, Steenwijk, Netherlands, saved fifty percent of the Dutch Jews in this small community (Hillbrink, 1989, p. 114)

Individual Clergy, The Netherlands (Holland) – Protestant:

Pastor Bastiaan Ader●, awarded Righteous Among the Nations title November 22, 1967, helped by wife, Johanna Adriana Ader Appels (Yad Vashem Archives; Gutman, 2004, p. 57)

Pastor Gerrit-Willem Alberts● and wife, Johanna Alberts Rog●, awarded Righteous Among the Nations title September 4, 1991 (Yad Vashem Archives; Gutman, 2004, p. 60)

Pastor (Reverend) Johannes Alderse-Baas●, awarded Righteous Among the Nations title November 28, 1978 (Yad Vashem Archives; Gutman, 2004, p. 60)

Pastor Jan B. Assendorp●, awarded Righteous Among the Nations title February 23, 1984 (Yad Vashem Archives; Gutman, 2004, p. 72)

Pastor (Reverend) Pieter Barends● and mother, Johanna Elizabeth Barends Simoons●, awarded Righteous Among the Nations title July 15, 1975 (Yad Vashem Archives; Gutman, 2004, p. 84)

Pastor (Reverend) Johannes Bijlsma● and wife, Johanna Pieternella Bijlsma van der Linden●, awarded Righteous Among the Nations title October 7, 1973 (Yad Vashem Archives; Gutman, 2004, p. 109)

Pastor Dirk Boon● and wife, Jacoba Cornelia Boon-Ketel●, awarded Righteous Among the Nations title October 22, 1977 (Yad Vashem Archives; Gutman, 2004, p. 137)

Pastor Jan van den Bos● and wife, Petronella Suzanna Willmina van den Bos-Verhaue●, awarded Righteous Among the Nations title January 9, 1983 (Yad Vashem Archives; Gutman, 2004, p. 143)

Pastor Alida Bosshardt●, Salvation Army, awarded Righteous Among the Nations title (Yad Vashem Archives)

Pastor (Reverend) Brillenburg-Würth● and wife, Gerda Billenburg-Würth●, awarded Righteous Among the Nations title January 25, 1966 (Yad Vashem Archives; Gutman, 2004, p. 160)

Pastor Eben-Haeser Broekema●, awarded Righteous Among the Nations title July 29, 1968, helped by wife, Mrs. Broekema (Yad Vashem Archives; Gutman, 2004, p. 166)

Pastor (Revernd) Dr. Cornelis Brouwer●, awarded Righteous Among the Nations title October 26, 1982 (Yad Vashem Archives; Gutman, 2004, p. 169)

Pastor Dr. Nicolette Bruining●, awarded Righteous Among the Nations title March 7, 1990 (Yad Vashem Archives; Gutman, 2004, p. 175)

Pastor Louis Buenk●, awarded Righteous Among the Nations title (Yad Vashem Archives)

Pastor Abraham Burger● and wife, Marie Burger-Oordhis●, awarded Righteous Among the Nations title January 29, 1974 (Yad Vashem Archives; Gutman, 2004, p. 182)

Pastor Lambertus Cannegieter● and wife, Anna Habbijna Cannegieter van de Coppello●, awarded Righteous Among the Nations title November 9, 1993 (Yad Vashem Archives; Gutman, 2004, p. 187)

Pastor Jelis van Creutzberg●, with wife, Francois Nelly Creutzberg van Stein Callenfels● and daughter, Piëta Vincentina Creutzberg●, awarded Righteous Among the Nations title August 12, 1975 (Yad Vashem Archives; Gutman, 2004, p. 194)

Pastor Alexander Hubertus van Drooge● and wife, Eddy Kunne van Drooge-Ter Har●, awarded Righteous Among the Nations title Januar 30, 1997 (Yad Vashem Archives; Gutman, 2004, p. 228)

Pastor (Reverend) Adriaan Faber● and wife, Anna Dorothea Henriette-Faber Chabot●, awarded Righteous Among the Nations title February 24, 1993 (Yad Vashem Archives; Gutman, 2004, p. 243)

Pastor Theodoor Frederikse● and wife Annie Frederikse-Oskamp●, awarded Righteous Among the Nations title March 4, 1985 (Yad Vashem Archives; Gutman, 2004, p. 251)

Pastor Gerrit●, awarded Righteous Among the Nations title (Yad Vashem Archives)

Pastor Daniel Christian Goedhart●, with wife, Wihelmina Maria Anna-Goedhart Westendorf●, and daughter, Hanna Goedhart●, awarded Righteous Among the Nations title January 30, 1997 (Yad Vashem Archives; Gutman, 2004, p. 273)

Pastor Engelbert Grommans●, awarded Righteous Among the Nations title (Yad Vashem Archives)

Pastor (Vicar) Isaäc Groenenberg●, and wife, Barbara Gronenberg-De Kleer●, awarded Righteous Among the Nations title February 28, 1967 (Yad Vashem Archives; Gutman, 2004, p. 286)

Pastor (Reverend) Roelof Hamming●, with wife, Hendrike Hamming-Lanning●, and daughter, Wilhelmina Hamming●, awarded Righteous Among the Nations title February 22, 1981 (Yad Vashem Archives; Gutman, 2004, p. 301)

Pastor (Reverend) Jetze Heidinga● and wife, Maria Clazina Heidinga-Voogd●, awarded Righteous Among the Nations title March 19, 1987 (Yad Vashem Archives; Gutman, 2004, p. 313)

Pastor (Reverend) Abraham Hijmans●, awarded Righteous Among the Nations title March 13, 1997 (Yad Vashem Archives; Gutman, 2004, p. 334)

Pastor (Reverend) Henk Jan Hoek● and wife, Cornelia Hoek-Loudon●, awarded Righteous Among the Nations title February 6, 1973 (Yad Vashem Archives; Gutman, 2004, p. 337)

Pastor Laura van der Hoek● (Quaker), awarded Righteous Among the Nations title September 29, 1994 (Yad Vashem Archives; Gutman, 2004, p. 338)

Pastor (Reverend) Rikkert A. Hoogkamp● and wife, Fenna Hoogkamp-Wolting●, awarded Righteous Among the Nations title December 28, 1987 (Yad Vashem Archives; Gutman, 2004, p. 349)

Pastor (Reverend) Johannes Hugenholtz● and wife, Ester Maria Hugenholtz-Pouwelsen●, awarded Righteous Among the Nations title February 26, 1981 (Yad Vashem Archives; Gutman, 2004, p. 359)

Pastor (Reverend) Jacob J. Kalma● and wife, Froukje Kalma-Koops●, awarded Righteous Among the Nations title May 28, 1974 (Yad Vashem Archives; Gutman, 2004, p. 391)

Minister Jakob Dirk Koers●, awarded Righteous Among the Nations title May 8, 1972 (Yad Vashem Archives; Gutman, 2004, p. 422)

Pastor (Reverend) Elisa Cornelis Barend Kok● and wife, Margaretha Johanna Kok-Engelks●, awarded Righteous Among the Nations title December 6, 1984 (Yad Vashem Archives; Gutman, 2004, p. 423)

Pastor (Reverend) Kleijs Henrik Kroon● and wife, Henriette Pouline Johanna Kroon-Van Dijk●, awarded Righteous Among the Nations title June 26, 1980 (Yad Vashem Archives; Gutman, 2004, p. 447)

Pastor Peter (Pieter) Lambooy● and wife, Anna Magdalena Lambooy-Verhoef●, awarded Righteous Among the Nations title January 12, 1994 (Yad Vashem Archives; Gutman, 2004, p. 461)

Helena-Cornelia Leignes-Bakhoven●, Salvation Army, awarded Righteous Among the Nations title October 13, 1997 (Yad Vashem Archives; Gutman, 2004, p. 469)

Pastor (Reverend) Klaas Meima● and wife, Elizabeth Hillegina Henrica Maria Meima-Heida●, awarded Righteous Among the Nations title September 27, 1983 (Yad Vashem Archives; Gutman, 2004, p. 515)

Pastor (Vicar) Willem Mesdag● and wife, Sjoukje G. Mesdag-Hijlkema●, awarded Righteous Among the Nations title September 8, 1993 (Yad Vashem Archives; Gutman, 2004, p. 520)

Pastor Pieter Miedema● and wife, Joekje Miedema-Zijlstra●, awarded Righteous Among the Nations title September 12, 1993 (Yad Vashem Archives; Gutman, 2004, p. 524)

Pastor (Reverend) Cornelis Diderikus Moulijn●, awarded Righteous Among the Nations title August 15, 1974 (Yad Vashem Archives; Gutman, 2004, p. 536)

Pastor (Reverend) Pieter Baan Müller● and wife, Adriana Henriette Johanna Sophia Muller-Wüstenhoff●, awarded Righteous Among the Nations title (Yad Vashem Archives; Gutman, 2004, p. 541)

Pastor Johannes Arie van Nieuwenhuyzen● and wife, Lena van Nieuwenhuyzen-Olie●, awarded Righteous Among the Nations title December 6, 1984 (Yad Vashem Archives; Gutman, 2004, p. 554)

Pastor Frederik Nijkamp●

Pastor (Reverend) Teunis Hessel Oosterbrug● and wife, Jacoba Hendrina Oostenbrug-Kraaij●, awarded Righteous Among the Nations title January 21, 1988 (Yad Vashem Archives; Gutman, 2004, p. 573)

Pastor (Reverend) Leendert Overduin● and sisters, Maartje Overduin● and Corrie Lenkes-Overduin●, awarded Righteous Among the Nations title (Yad Vashem Archives; Gutman, 2004, p. 584)

Pastor (Reverend) Matthias Rudolph Pleister● and wife, Gijsje Pliester-Veenendaal●, awarded Righteous Among the Nations title February 6, 1973 (Yad Vashem Archives; Gutman, 2004, p. 600)

Pastor (Vicar) Gerardus Jacobus Pontier● and wife, Dora Maria Pontier-Wartema●, awarded Righteous Among the Nations title February 13, 1968 (Yad Vashem Archives; Gutman, 2004, p. 605)

Pastor (Reverend) Hendrikus Post● and wife, Harmina Aaltina Post-Salomons●, awarded Righteous Among the Nations title June 9, 1983 (Yad Vashem Archives; Gutman, 2004, p. 607)

Pastor Willem Reinders● and wife, Anna Maria Veehuizen-de Jager●, awarded Righteous Among the Nations title September 21, 1978 (Yad Vashem Archives; Gutman, 2004, p. 628)

Pastor Binne Roorda●, awarded Righteous Among the Nations title September 8, 1996 (Yad Vashem Archives; Gutman, 2004, p. 645)

Pastor Dirk Schakel● and wife, Anna Clasina Schakel-Kok●, awarded Righteous Among the Nations title April 16, 1978 (Yad Vashem Archives; Gutman, 2004, p. 664)

Bernard-Danial Smeenk● and wife, Immetje Smeenk-Jone Jans●, awarded Righteous Among the Nations title December 10, 1972 (Yad Vashem Archives; Gutman, 2004, p. 693)

Pastor E.L. Smelik Hendrik Sweepe●, awarded Righteous Among the Nations title (Yad Vashem Archives; Gutman, 2004, p. 723)

Pastor (Reverend) Theodorus Hubertus Tangelder● and wife, Ingeborg Tangelder-von Rohden●, awarded Righteous Among the Nations title May 3, 1973 (Yad Vashem Archives; Gutman, 2004, p. 727)

Pastor (Reverend) Lourens Touwen● and wife, Anna Henrika Touwen-de Boer●, awarded Righteous Among the Nations title March 4, 1987 (Yad Vashem Archives; Gutman, 2004, p. 743)

Pastor (Reverend) Dr. Johan Gerhard Ubbink● with son, Professor Johan Bernard Ubbink●, and daughter-in-law, Solveg Bertha Ubbink-Affourit●, awarded Righteous Among the Nations title June 2, 1996 (Yad Vashem Archives; Gutman, 2004, p. 747)

Pastor Wandrinus J. Val● and wife, Gerritina Val-Pak●, awarded Righteous Among the Nations title December 12, 1967 (Yad Vashem Archives; Gutman, 2004, p. 752)

Pastor Henricus Villinghs●

Pastor (Reverend) Marcus van der Voet●, awarded Righteous Among the Nations title February 6, 1989 (Yad Vashem Archives; Gutman, 2004, p. 791)

Pastor Leendert Jacobus Wesswldjk●, awarded Righteous Among the Nations title March 27, 1970 (Yad Vashem Archives; Gutman, 2004, p. 819)

Norway

Norwegian Quakers, Oslo, Norway, rescue action (YV M31/10856, Sigrid Helliesen Lund interview; Cohen; Wright, 1974; Mendelsohn)

Warned Jews in Oslo about impending German action against them n November 25, 1945.  Helped hide and shelter Jews during German occupation.  Helped some to escape to neutral Sweden.

Myrtle Wright

Diderich Lund, chair, Children’s Committee for the Nansen Organization

Sigrid Helliesen Lund (YV M31/10856 Sigrid Helliesen Lund)

Nina Hasvold, director, Children’s Home

Dr. Caroline “Nic” Waal

Gerda Tanberg

Poland

Poland - Individual Clergy

Father Felix (Feliks) Gloeh●, Army colonel, Warsaw, Poland, awarded Righteous Among the Nations title October 2, 1984 (Yad Vashem Archives; Gutman, 2004, p. 237)

Scotland

Church of Scotland, Nonsectarian Refugee Relief Agency

Slovakia

Lutheran Girls Boarding School and Orphanage, Modra, Slovakia (Gutman, 2007, p. 435)

Pastor Július Dérer●, manager, awarded Righteous Among the Nations title June 2, 1996 (Yad Vashem Archives; Gutman, 2007, p. 435)

Pastor Vladmir Kuna●, awarded Righteous Among the Nations title (Yad Vashem Archives; Gutman, 2007, p. 459)

Pastor Vojtech Schaffarovsky●, awarded Righteous Among the Nations title (Yad Vashem Archives)

Pastor Pavel Teriansky●, awarded Righteous Among the Nations title (Yad Vashem Archives)

Protestant Church Orphanage, Liptovsky Svaty Mikulas, (Northern) Slovakia

Pastor Vladimir Kuna●, Liptovsky Sväty Mikulas Orphanage

Father Jan Bakoss*

Slovak Consulate, Budapest, Hungary

Dr. Spisiak, Slovakian Consul in Budapest, 1944-45

Dr. Spisiak, Slovakian Consul in Budapest, provided Slovakian Jewish refugees with false passports. Vince Tomek, a priest, helped distribute these passports.  He also helped the Jews in the Pest ghetto.  (Hetényi, Varga K., “Those Who Were Persecuted Because of the Truth.” Ecclesia, Budapest, 1985.  Asaf, 1990, p. 105. Lévai, Jenö. Black Book on the Martyrdom of Hungarian Jewry. (Central European Times Publishing, 1948). Braham, Randolph L. The Politics of Genocide: The Holocaust in Hungary. (New York: Columbia University Press, 1981).)

Father Vince Tomek, Priaist Priest

Father Tomek distributed Slovakian false passports to Slovakian Jewish refugees in Budapest.  These documents were issued by Dr. Spisiak, the Slovak Consul in Budapest.  (Hetényi, Varga K., “Those Who Were Persecuted Because of the Truth.” Ecclesia, Budapest, 1985. Asaf, 1990, p. 105.)

Individual Clergy (Slovakia) – Protestant:

Pastor Jan Bakos

Banska Bystrica*

Bishop Dr. A. Jantausch

Pastor Michael Maslej

Father Augustin Pozdech

Sweden

Pastor Erik Myrgren●

Switzerland

Church Council of Zurich, Switzerland

Council of Pastors, Geneva, Switzerland

Council of the Synod of Bern, Switzerland

Swiss Protestant Relief Society, Switzerland

Swiss Union of Reformed Pastors, Switzerland

World Council of Churches (WCC), Headquarters, Geneva, Switzerland (Gutman, 1990, p. 295)

Dr. Willem Visser t’Hooft

Dutch Protestant Church

Danish Protestant Church

Adolf Freundenberg, head WCC Refugee Service (Moore, 2010, p. 135)

Pastor André Bettex●

Pastor Daniel Curtet●

Adolf Freudenberg

Father Albert Gross●

Vissert Hooft

Pastor Hans Schaffert● (in France)

Reverend Paul Vogt

United States of America

Church Peace Union

Dr. Henry A. Atkinson, general secretary

The Federal Council of Churches of Christ in America (comprised of 25 Protestant denominations)

Reformed (Calvinist) Church

Pastor Idebert Exbrayat

Russian Orthodox Church

France

Father Dimitri Klepinin*, Saxe (near Paris); died in Dora concentration camp, February 1944

Yuri Klepinen*, son of Dimitri Klepinin and Maria Skobtsova, was arrested and deported to Dora concentration camp, where he died in February 1944

Maria Skobtsova* (Yelizaveta Pilenko), Saxe (near Paris); died in Ravensbrück concentration camp, March 1945

Russia – Western Ukraine

Orphanage of the Virgin Mary, Univ. Studite Monastery

Metropolitan Brother Klement (Kazimir Sheptitzky), Superior General Uniate Catholic Church

Brother Varnava

Monastery of St. John the Baptist (Studite), Lyczakiv, Clviv

Superior Father Mark Stek, St. Andrew House, Luzky, Carpathian Mountains

St. Josaphat Monastery, Leopolis

Convent of the Studite Church

Sister Helena Witer (Ihumenia Jozefa, head sisterhood of the Studeite Church)

Individuals (Ukraine):

Father Vladimir Dlozhevski●

Father Aleksey Glagolev●

Father Ignatia Groqul●

Father Fiodor Zavirukha●

Scottish Mission in Budapest, Hungary

Ms. Hanning●* (Killed)

Ms. Lee

Swedish Seaman’s Church, Stutthof, East Prussia and Berlin

Pastor Erik Myrgren●

Transylvania

Archbishop Balan

Uniate Church

Ukraine


Brother Lazar●

Father Nikandor●, Studite Order

Metropolitan (Brother) Klement Shepitzky●

Father Ivan Sherbanovich●

Brother Marko Stek●

Brother Theodosy (Tadeusz Cebrynski)●

Sister Helena Witer●

Unitarian Service Committee HQ (USC), Boston, MA, United States

The Unitarian Service Committee (USC) of Boston worked very closely with the ERC and Donald Lowrie of the YMCA.  The Unitarians provided medical supplies, food, and education to refugee children.  The distributed International Red Cross supplies.  The USC operated a clinic on the rue d’Italie in Marseilles.  Dr. Rene Zimmer, a refugee, supervised the clinic.  The USC helped distribute food, along with the Quakers.  The USC employed four full-time physicians and five part-time physicians, including three dentists, to aid refugee health concerns.  The USC shared space with OSC and other Jewish organizations that helped children.

There were a number of Jewish volunteers who worked in the Unitarian Service Committee’s office in Marseilles.  In addition, the USC cooperated with many Jewish rescue organizations and operations in and around Marseilles.

There were 16 persons who worked in the committee office in France.

Waitstill Sharp and Martha Sharp, from the Boston OSC office, helped distribute milk to Jewish refugee children.

The USC helped expedite about 100 immigration cases.

The USC also helped former Spanish republican soldiers who were fleeing Spain.

The USC oversaw the establishment of a kindergarten at the Rivesaltes camp and relief operations at Les Milles, Bompard, Atlantique, Terminus des Ports, and Levant.

References:

Archives and Manuscripts

American Jewish Joint Distribution Committee. Archives. New York City.

Anderson, Paul B. Papers. University of Illinois Archives, Chambagne-Urbana, Illinois.

British Secret Intelligence Service. MI-6 Records. Public Records Office, Kew Gardens, London.

Dexter, Elisabeth Anthony, and Robert Cloutman Dexter. “Last Port of Freedom.” Unpublished manuscript. Multiple drafts, undated. Elisabeth Anthony Dexter Papers, Box 16. John Hay Library, Brown University, Providence, Rhode Island.

Dexter, Elisabeth Anthony, and Robert Cloutman Dexter. Papers. John Hay Library, Brown University, Providence, Rhode Island.

Dexter, Lewish A. “A Memoir of Elisabeth Anthony Dexter: Social Background and Personal Meaning of a Type of Feminist Research,” 17 pp. Undated, unpublished manuscript, in the author’s possession.

DiFiglia, Ghanda. “To Try the Soul’s Strength: A Woman’s Participation in the History of Her Time.” Unpublished manuscript. 1998. Martha and Waitstill Sharp Collection, Box 43, Folder 104, John Hay Library, Brown University, Providence, Rhode Island.

Ebel, Miriam Davenport. Papers. U.S. Holocaust Memorial Museum, Washington, DC.

Eliot, Samuel Atkins. Papers. Andover-Harvard Theological Library, Harvard University Divinity School, Cambridge, Massachusetts.

Feuchtwanger, Lion. Memorial Library. Special Collections, Doheny Memorial Library, University of Southern California, Los Angeles.

Fisera, Joseph. Archive. U.S. Hololcaust Memorial Museum, Washington, DC.

Fry, Varian. Papers. Columbia University Rare Book and Manuscript Library, New York City.

Joy, Charles Rhind. Papers. Andover-Harvard Theological Library, Harvard University Divinity School, Cambridge, Massachusetts.

Lewis, J. F., “The Unitarian Service Committee.” Unpublished Ph.D. dissertation, University of California, 1952.

Long, Breckinridge. Papers. Library of Congress, Washington, DC.

Lowrie, Donald A., and Helen O. Lowrie. Papers. University of Illinois Archives, Champagne-Urbana, Illinois.

National Archives and Records Administration (NARA). Federal Bureau of Investigation. Office of Strategic Services. State Depaertment. State Department Decimal Files. Washington, DC, and College Park, Maryland.

Roosevelt, Eleanor. Papers. Franklin Delano Roosevelt Presidential Library, Hyde Park, New York.

Sharp, Martha and Waitstill. Collection. John Hay Library, Brown University, Providence, Rhode Island.

Skidmore College. Archives, Saratoga Springs, New York.

Unitarian Service Committee. Records. Audiovisual Records. Andover-Harvard Theological Library, Harvard University Divinity School, Cambridge, Massachusetts.

Unitarian Universalist Service Committee. Records. U.S. Holocaust Memorial Museum, Washington, DC.

United States Holocaust Memorial Museum. Institutional Archives: Assignment Rescue. Oral History Archives. Photo Archives. Washington, DC.

USC Archives, Harvard Divinity School Library, Harvard University, Boston, MA

War Refugee Board. Archives. Franklin Delano Roosevelt Presidential Library, Hyde Park, New York.

Published Works

American Labor Conference on International Affairs. “Guide to the American Labor Conference on International Affairs Records, 1939-1950,” Taminent Library and Robert F. Wagner Labor Archives, Elmer Holmes Bobst Library.  http://dlib.nyu.edu/findingaids/html/tamwag/alcia.html

Baker Memorial Issue. The Tech. Cambridge, MA: Massachusetts Institute of Technology, 1950.

Bauer, Yehuda. American Jewry and the Holocaust: The American Jewish Joint Distribution Committee, 1939-45. Detroit: Wayne State University Press, 1981, pp. 161-162, 207, 240.

Bazarov, Valery. “Schmolka and Stiener: The Return of the Heroes,” Hebrew Immigrant Aid Society. www.hias.org/who_we_are/120stories/116Schmolka.pdf

Bénédite, Danny. La Filiere Marseillaise: Un Chemin Vers la Liberté Sous L’Occuption. Paris: Clancier Guenaud, 1984.

Brooks, H. L., Prisoners of Hope: Report on a Mission. New York: L. B. Fischer, 1942. 

DiFiglia, Ghanda. Roots and Visions: The First Fifty Years of the Unitarian Universalist Service Committee. Cambridge, MA: Unitarian Universalist Service Committee, 1990.

Feuchtwanger, Lion. The Devil in France: My Encounter with Him in the Summer of 1940. New York: Viking Press, 1941.

Fry, Varian. Surrender on Demand. New York: Random House, 1945, pp. 73, 74, 80, 102, 106, 220, 239.

Genizi, Haim. American Apathy: The Plight of Christian Refugees from Nazism. Ramat-Gan, Israel: Bar-Ilan University, 1983.

Genizi, Haim. “Christian Charity: The Unitarian Service Committee’s Relief Activities on Behalf of Refugees from Nazism, 1940-45.” Holocaust and Genocide Studies 2, no. 2 (1987): 267-76.

Henry, Richard. Norbert Fabian Capek: A Spiritual Journey. Boston: Skinner House Books, 1999.

Howe, Charles A. For Faith and Freedom: A Short History of Unitarianism in Europe. Boston: Skinner House Books, 1997.

Lewis, Flora. Red Pawn: The Story of Noel Field. Garden City NY: Doubleday and Company, 1965.

Lewis, James Ford. “The Unitarian Service Committee.” PhD Diss., University of California, 1967.

London, Louise. Whitehall and the Jews, 1933-1948: British Immigration Policy, Jewish Refugees, and the Holocaust. Cambridge: Cambridge University Press, 2000.

Lowrie, Donald A. The Hunted Children. New York: W. W. Norton and Company, 1963.

Marino, Andy. A Quiet American: The Secret War of Varian Fry. New York: St. Martin’s Griffin, 1999.

Morse, Arthur D. While Six Million Died: A Chronicle of American Apathy. New York: Random House, 1967, pp. 167, 334.

Pittet, Genevieve. “Passages de frontiers.” In Quelques Actions des Protestants de France: En Faveur des Juifs Persecutes Sous L’Occupation Allemande 1940-1944. Paris: CIMADE, 1945.

Romanofsky, Social Service Organizations, pp. 692-698. 

Ryan, Donna. “Vichy and the Jews: The Example of Marseille, 1939-44.” 2 vols. PhD diss., University of Maryland, 1984.

Samuel, Vivette. Rescuing the Children: A Holocaust Memoir. Madison: University of Wisconsin Press, 2002.

Sanger, Clyde. Lotta and the Unitarian Service Committee Story. Toronto: Stoddard Publishing, 1986.

Weill, Joseph. Le Combat d’un Juste. Bron: Cheminements, 2002.

Wischnitzer, Mark. Visas to Freedom: The History of HIAS. Cleveland: World Publishing Company, 1956.

Wyman, Paper Walls; Ryan, 1996; Subak, Susan, Rescue and Flight: American Relief Workers who Defied the Nazis, Lincoln, NE: University of Nebraska Press, 2010

Zeitoun, Sabine. L’Oeuvre de Secours aux Enfants (OSE) sous L’Occupation en France. Paris: L’Harmattan, 1990.

Unitarian Service Committee, Boston, Massachusetts, USA

William Emerson, Chairman, Unitarian Service Committee

Seth Gano, Vice Chairman, Unitarian Service Committee (Subak, 2010, p. xxiv)

Percival Brundage, Vice Chairman (Subak, 2010, p. 30)

Edward Witte, Treasurer, member Board of Directors (Subak, 2010, p. xxiv)

Frederick Eliot, member Board of Directors (Subak, 2010, pp. 26, 35, 136, 164, 177, 190, 266n2))

Dr. Winfred Overholser, member Board of Directors

Marion Harris Niles, office manager, USC Office, Boston (Subak, 2010, pp. 81, 108)

Mrs. Campbell, Boston office (Subak, 2010, p. 108)

Ray Bragg, Treasurer, USC Boston office (Subak, 2010, pp. 138, 164, 177, 224-225)

Unitarian Service Committee (Le Comité Unitarien pour le Secours), Marseilles, France, see also the Emergency Rescue Committee (ERC), Marseilles, Young Men’s Christian Association (YMCA), Marseilles, Czech Aid, Marseilles

Noel H. Field (USA), Southern France

Noel Field, a Quaker, headed the Marseilles office of the Unitarian Service Committee (USC).  Field had previously worked for the US Department of State and the League of Nations.  The USC provided relief in the French concentration camps in Southern France, including the Rivesalt, Les Milles, Atlantique, Terminus des Ports, and Levant camps and the Marseilles reception center in Bompard.  In addition, the USC ran medical clinics that employed four full-time and five part-time physicians, and three dentists.  (Subak, 2010, pp. 84-86, 88, 89, 109-111, 121-122, 125-126, 148, 151-153, 164, 181, 195, 202, 214-215, 225)

Herta Field (Subak, 2010, pp. 85, 86, 88, 119, 120, 146-149, 151, 153, 154, 179-181, 214)

Reverend Dr. Howard Lee Brooks (USA), France (Brooks, 1942; Subak, 2010, pp. 103-107, 109, 113, 114, 132, 137, 138, 157-158, 161, 165, 176, 177, 194, 196)

Dr. René Zimmer, head USC Marseilles clinic, see René Zimmer Rescue Network (USC Archives; Subak, 2010, pp. 87, 103, 105, 109-112, 125, 148, 156-159, 164, 173-175, 181, 191, 194-195, 198, 209)

Fanny Zimmer, wife of Dr. René Zimmer (Subak, 2010, pp. 105, 111, 158, 191)

Reverend Waitstill Sharp●, (USA), Southern France, Czechoslovakia

Waitstill and Martha Sharp represented the Unitarian Service Committee in the Marseilles area.  They helped distribute relief supplies and medicine to needy refugees.  They also helped Spanish Civil War refugees as well as Jews who were interned in the French camps.  In 1940, the Sharps helped save a number of Jewish children by taking them to Spain.  They were helped by American diplomat Hiram Bingham IV.  They were recognized as Righteous Among the Nations by the State of Israel in 2006.  (Subak, 2010, pp. 1-24, 28-29, 33-36, 38, 47, 50-52, 54, 55, 57, 58, 66-67, 76, 94, 97, 172, 213-215)

Martha Sharp●, (USA), France, Czechoslovakia

Waitstill and Martha Sharp represented the Unitarian Service Committee in the Marseilles area.  They helped distribute relief supplies and medicine to needy refugees.  They also helped Spanish Civil War refugees as well as Jews who were interned in the French camps.  In 1940, the Sharps helped save a number of Jewish children by taking them to Spain.  They were helped by American diplomat Hiram Bingham IV.  They were recognized as Righteous Among the Nations by the State of Israel in 2006.  (Subak, 2010, pp. 2, 9-24, 30-32, 41, 52-53, 55, 60-65, 68, 76, 94-95, 119-120, 134-137, 177-178, 210, 214, 237)

Reverend Dr. Charles Rhind Joy (USA), France (Subak, 2010, pp. 52, 54-60, 70, 71, 78-83, 90-91, 114-115, 129, 130, 131-132, 186, 187, 189, 190, 194-196)

Robert C. Dexter and wife, Elizabeth Dexter (USA), WRB representative, Portugal, 1944-1945 (Subak, 2010, pp. 25-28, 35, 59, 64-65, 76-78, 81-82, 100-109, 137-141, 157-159, 164, 169-171, 174-176, 207-208)

Isaac Weissman, Portugal (Jewish)

Franzi von Hildebrand, assistant to Dr. Charles Joy (Fry, 1945; Subak, 2010, pp. 249n1)

Dr. Olmer (Jewish), OSE, Marseilles clinic

Dr. Wolf, pediatrician, OSE, Marseilles clinic (Subak, 2010, p. 155)

Dr. Joseph Weil (Jewish), OSE, Marseilles clinic (Ryan, 1996; Subak, 2010, pp. 86-88, 119, 145, 179-181, 201, 203, 204)

Dr. Richard Baer (Jewish), physician, USC medical staff (Subak, 2010, pp. 141, 143)

Mr. Raptopoulos (Ryan, 1996)

Madam Rene Lang, children’s teacher in Rivesaltes internment camp, supervised 12 workers in camp (Ryan, 1996; Subak, 2010, pp. 88, 155, 197)

Aba Scerbac (Jewish; Subak, 2010, p. 141)

Dr. Zina Minor (Jewish; Subak, 2010, pp. 87-88, 155)

Hedwig Himmelstern (Subak, 2010, pp. 141-143)

Mrs. Kirbach, teacher, Bompard (Ryan, 1996)

Dr. Ilse Hamburger, teacher, Bompard (Ryan, 1996)

Madam Chavoutier (Ryan, 1996; Subak, 2010, p. 67)

Dr. Mendel, physician (Subak, 2010,  p. 155)

Dr. Landsmann, physician (Subak, 2010, p. 155)

Dr. Karp (Subak, 2010, p. 155)

Margot Stein, relief worker Hotel Bompard, Marseilles (Subak, 2010, pp. 109-124)

Herta “Jo” Tempi, USC office, Paris (Subak, 2010, pp. 198-200)

Unitarian Service Committee, physicians and surgeons, Marseilles, France

Dr. René Zimmer, head USC Marseilles clinic, see René Zimmer Rescue Network (USC Archives; Subak, 2010, pp. 87, 103, 105, 109-112, 125, 148, 156-159, 164, 173-175, 181, 191, 194-195, 198, 209)

Dr. Zina Minor (USC Archives; Subak, 2010, pp. 87-88, 155)

Dr. Mendel (USC Archives; Subak, 2010, p. 155)

Dr. Richard Baer (USC Archives; Subak, 2010, pp. 141, 143, 155)

Dr. Karp (USC Archives; Subak, 1020, p. 155)

Dr. Landsmann (USC Archives; Subak, 2010, p. 155)

Dr. Joseph Weil (Jewish; USC Archives; Subak, 2010, pp. 86-88, 119, 145, 179-181, 201, 203-204; Weil, Joseph, Le Combat d’un Juste, Bron: Cheminements, 2002)

Dr. Carcassonne, surgeon (Subak, 2010, p. 191)

Unitarian Service Committee, Lisbon, Portugal

References:

Dexter, Elisabeth Anthony, and Robert Cloutman Dexter. “Last Port of Freedom.” Unpublished manuscript. Multiple drafts, undated. Elisabeth Anthony Dexter Papers, Box 16. John Hay Library, Brown University, Providence, Rhode Island.

Dexter, Elisabeth Anthony, and Robert Cloutman Dexter. Papers. John Hay Library, Brown University, Providence, Rhode Island.

Dexter, Lewish A. “A Memoir of Elisabeth Anthony Dexter: Social Background and Personal Meaning of a Type of Feminist Research,” 17 pp. Undated, unpublished manuscript, in the author’s possession.

Reverend Charles Joy, manager (Subak, 2010, pp. 55-61, 74)

Robert Dexter, manager, replaced Charles Joy (Subak, 2010, pp. 105-106)

Elizabeth Dexter, wife of Robert Dexter (Subak, 2010, pp. 105-106)

Martha Sharp●

Mary Jane Gold (Fry, 1945; Subak, 2010, pp. 115-116)

Pipa Harris (Subak, 2010, pp. 105-106)

Aurora Ramos, secretary (Subak, 2010, pp. 105-106)

Yugoslav Goldstajn and wife (Subak, 2010, pp. 105-106)

Max Hoffman, refugee (Subak, 2010, pp. 106, 160, 170)

Ninon Tallon (Subak, 2010, pp. 54-55, 74)

Reverend Howard Brooks (Subak, 2010)

Walter Meyerhoff (Jewish), son of refugee Dr. Otto Meyerhoff (Subak, 2010, pp. 46-47, 76-79)

Heinrich Müller, refugee, former staff of Emergency Rescue Committee (ERC), made head interviewer for refugees in USC office in Lisbon (Subak, 2010, p. 90)

Rene Dorian, wife of Heinrich Müller, volunteered in USC office (Subak, 2010, p. 90)

Unitarian Service Committee (American Unitarian Association), Prague, Czechoslovakia (Subak, 2010, p. xx)

Helped Jews leave Czechoslovakia after the German occupation in 1938.  Waitstill and Martha Sharp set up an office to facilitate successful emigration.  They employed a number of young Czech Jews to operate the office.  They processed hundreds of Jewish refugees.  They succeeded in having Jews released from jails by obtaining letters from the American consular offices in Prague.  One consul, Consul General Irving Linnell, was particularly helpful to the Unitarians.

Robert Cloutman Dexter (d. 1955), helped found Unitarian Service Committee (USC; Subak, 2010, pp. xi-xxiv)

Elizabeth Anthony Williams Dexter (d. 1972; Subak, 2010, pp. xi-xxiv)

Norbert Capek, head Unitarian Church, Prague, Czechoslovakia (Subak, 2010, pp. xxi, 10-13, 22-24, 244n3, 244n36)

Waitstill Sharp● (Subak, 2010)

Martha Sharp● (Subak, 2010)

Richard Wood, American Friends Service Committee (AFSC; Subak, 2010, p. xxii)

Alice Masaryk (Subak, 2010, pp. 4, 14-16)

Unitarian Service Committee Kindergarten Program (USC Archives; Subak, 2010)

Madam Lang, head (USC Archives; Subak, 2010, pp. 88, 155)

Madam Monteil (USC Archives; Subak, 2010, p. 155)

Madame Haber+, medical secretary, deported with her husband (USC Archives; Subak, 2010, p. 155)

Vivette Herman Samuel (Jewish), OSE, Rivesaltes camp (Subak, 2010, p. 120)

Jacqueline Levy (Jewish), OSE, Rivesaltes camp (Subak, 2010, p. 120)

Helped by (individuals):

Varian Fry●, Emergency Rescue Committee (ERC; Centre Americain de Secours), Marseilles

Donald and Helen Lowrie, YMCA, Czech Aid, Nimes Committee

Danny Benédite, Emergency Rescue Committee (ERC; Centre Americain de Secours), Marseilles

Paul Schmierer, Emergency Rescue Committee (ERC), Marseilles (Subak, 2010, pp. 147, 149, 156, 159-161)

Dr. Jourdan*+, courier for USC, arrested, executed (Subak, 2010, p. 200)

Czech Consul Vladimir Vochoc, Marseilles (Ryan, 1996; Subak, 2010)

French Consul, Portugal (Subak, 2010, p. 62)

Marshal Field III, Chicago, department store owner, provided financial assistance tor efugees and guarantees to US State Department (Sharp, p. 25; Subak, 2010, p. 62)

Frederike Zweig (Jewish refugee), helped fellow refugees escape France to Portugal, then to Mexico (Subak, 2010, p. 65)

Frank Boh, American Federation of Labor (AFofL), Marseilles, helped secure the release of refugeesstuck at the Spanish border for the Unitarian Committee (Subak, 2010, p. 74)

Vivette Herman (Jewish), volunteered to work in USC school for Jewish children in Rivesaltes French camp (Samuel, 2002; Subak, 2010, p. 120)

Jacqueline Levy (Jewish), French Jewish refugee, worked in USC children’s schools in Rivesaltes French camp (Samuel, 2002; Subak, 2010, p. 120)

Joseph Schwartz, American Jewish Joint Distribution Committee representative, Lisbon, Portugal; supported USC rescue and relief activities in France and Portugal (JDC Archives, NYC; Suabak, 2010, p. 124)

Helped by (groups):

Emergency Rescue Committee (Centre Americain de Secours), Marseilles

Joint Committee of the International Red Cross (Subak, 2010, p. 125)

Young Men’s Christian Association (YMCA), Marseilles

American Friends Service Committee, Marseilles (Subak, 2010)

International Migration Service

Madam Chevally (Lowrie, 1961, p. 87)

Nimes Committee (Lowrie, 1961; Ryan, 1996; Subak, 2010)

Hebrew Immigrant Aid Society (HICEM), New York, London, had 80 aid workers in Marseilles (YIVO Archives, NYC; Subak, 2010)

American Jewish Joint Distribution Committee (JDC), Marsielles, supported rescue and aid with funds and support (JDC Archives, NYC; Bauer, 1981; Subak, 2010)

Secours Suisse (Subak, 2010)

Ouevre Secours Enfants (OSE; Subak, 2010)

Czech Aid (Subak, 2010, p. 129)

Village Ardanove, Slovakia

Village Le Chambon sur Lignon, France

Village of Jarok, Nitra District, Slovakia

Tokaly Family●

Father Stefan Gallo (Catholic)

World Council of Churches, Geneva, Switzerland

Dr. Willem Visser t’Hooft

Dutch Protestant Church

Danish Protestant Church

Young Men’s Christian Association (YMCA), United States, active in France, Czechoslovakia, Portugal, established (in U.S.) in 1851

Dr. Donald Lowrie worked for the North American and later the world service of the YMCA.  Lowrie worked with a number of other relief agencies in the French internment camps.  He helped set up the YMCA relief activities in the unoccupied zone of Vichy.  He worked closely with Czech diplomat in Marseilles Vladimir Vochoc to distribute illegal passports. Later, Lowrie helped Jews escape the French Foreign Labor Battalions by setting up a protected area.  Lowrie also obtained visas from other diplomats, including Cambodian, Portuguese and Mexican.  These documents helped Jewish refugees flee to Switzerland.  Lowrie also helped with an attempt to rescue Jewish children who lost their parents when they were deported in 1942.

Lowrie coordinated the work of a number of relief agencies present in the internment camps and directed aid to the neediest individuals.  Along with Tracey Strong, he set up YMCA relief headquarters for the Unoccupied Zone on the rue Pythéas.  He personally oversaw the distribution of nonmaterial aid from the North American YMCA, such as books and musical instruments.  Like Varian Fry, Lowrie also engaged in clandestine and illegal activities with a group called Czech Aid.  He worked with the Czech consul Vochoc to distribute illegal passports and to set up the Château de la Blancherie on the outskirts of Marseille.

Lowrie also obtained forged Cambodian, Portuguese, and Mexican visas to help refugees into Switzerland, for Swiss authorities sometimes admitted foreigners with visas for other destinations.  He made contact with the first underground organizations, which he later claimed appeared during the summer of 1941, and worked with Abbé Perceval, prior of the Dominican monastery in Marseille that hid Jews.  To avoid incurring greater suspicion from government authorities, Lowrie carefully avoided the temptation of exchanging money on the “grey market,” an activity that brought much trouble to Varian Fry, and made only legal exchanges, although he did admit to sometimes obtaining his funds from illegal sources.  Lowrie’s best-known efforts, however, occurred in connection with a large-scale American attempt to rescue Jewish children abandoned when their parents were deported in 1942.

In November 1940 Lowrie helped set up the Coordination Committee for Relief Work in Internment Camps, commonly called the Nîmes Committee, because its monthly meetings were held there.  The committee of twenty-five agencies devoted itself to relief work, primarily in the internment camps but also on behalf of individuals in Marseille.  The Nîmes Committee collectively made reports on camp conditions, which Vichy must have taken seriously, because André Jean-Faure, the government’s camp inspector, attended all meetings.  Whether Vichy actually took notice of committee suggestions, perhaps as a concession to public opinion, or simply intended to keep track of the committee’s activities is unclear.”

There were a number of Jewish volunteers who worked in the YMCA.  In addition, the YMCA cooperated with many Jewish rescue organizations.

(Ryan, pp. 148-149.  Lowrie, Donald, The Hunted Children. New York: Norton, 1963.  Romanofsky, Social Service Organizations, pp. 758-764.  Leo Baeck Institute Archives.  Subak, Susan, Rescue and Flight: American Relief Workers who Defied the Nazis, Lincoln, NE: University of Nebraska, 2010)

Donald A. Lowrie, (USA), Southern France

Dr. Donald Lowrie worked for the North American and later the world service of the YMCA.  Lowrie worked with a number of other relief agencies in the French internment camps.  He helped set up the YMCA relief activities in the unoccupied zone of Vichy.  He worked closely with Czech diplomat in Marseilles Vladimir Vochoc to distribute illegal passports. Later, Lowrie helped Jews escape the French Foreign Labor Battalions by setting up a protected area.  Lowrie also obtained visas from other diplomats, including Cambodian, Portuguese and Mexican.  These documents helped Jewish refugees flee to Switzerland.  Lowrie also helped with an attempt to rescue Jewish children who lost their parents when they were deported in 1942.

(Donald L. Lowrie Papers, University of Illinois Archives, Champaign-Urbana, Illinois; Fry, Varian. Surrender on Demand. (New York: Random House, 1945). Marino, Andy. A Quiet American: The Secret War of Varian Fry. (New York: St. Martin’s Press, 1999), pp. 107, 132, 137, 191. Isenberg, Sheila. A Hero of Our Own: The Story of Varian Fry. (New York: Random House). Ryan, Donna F. The Holocaust and the Jews of Marseille: The Enforcement of Anti-Semitic Policies in Vichy France. (Urbana, IL: The University of Illinois Press, 1996), p. 148-149, 152, 167, 216.  JDC Archives, New York, NY; Subak, Susan, Rescue and Flight: American Relief Workers who Defied the Nazis, Lincoln, NE: University of Nebraska, 2010, pp. 33-35, 39-44, 51, 53, 61-68, 81, 84, 86, 88, 93, 105, 141-144, 152, 153, 157)

Helen Lowrie, (USA), Southern France

(Subak, Susan, Rescue and Flight: American Relief Workers who Defied the Nazis, Lincoln, NE: University of Nebraska, 2010, pp. 34-35, 40, 53, 60, 62-64, 152-153, 157, 181-182)

Tracy Strong, (USA), Southern France

Tracy Strong was a member of the Young Men’s Christian Association headquarters in the French unoccupied zone.  He worked with Donald Lowrie with the YMCA in distributing aid.  Strong was involved in illegal activities with Czech diplomat Vladimir Vochoc.  He helped distribute illegal passports and documents on the outskirts of Marseilles. (Ryan, 1996, p. 148; Subak, 2010, p. 243n30)

Helped by:

Vladimir Vochoc+, see Czech Consulate, Marseilles, France

Dr. Joseph Weill, physician, worked closely with Donald Lowrie on behalf of Jewish children (Subak, 2010, pp. 179-181)

Noel Field, Unitarian Service Committee (USC), Marseilles, France, Geneva, Switzerland

Helped smuggle refugees and found hiding places for them. (Subak, 2010, p. 181)

Genevieve Pittet, CIMADE, France

Led and supervised successful escape routes from France to Switzerland.  Worked with YMCA office in Geneva.  (Pittet, 1945)

Joseph Fisera (Lowrie, 1963; Subak, 2010)

Young Women’s Christian Association (YWCA), established 1871(McCulloch, Rhoda E., “The Dispossessed.” Women’s Press, 33 (Jan. 1939): 14-16.  Romanofsky, Social Service Organizations, pp. 764-772.  YWCA National Board, Committee on Refugees, Refugees Bulletin, No. 1-2, 1938-39.  YWCA Archives.)