Bibliography: Refuge in Portugal During the Holocaust


Bender & Weiss, 2007, The Encyclopedia of the Righteous among the Nations: Europe (Part I) and Other Countries, s.v., “Portugal,” p. 422

Leshem, P. “Rescue Efforts in the Iberian Peninsula.” Leo Baeck Institute Year Book, 14. (1969), pp. 231-256.

Milgram, Avraham. “Portugal, the Consuls, and the Jewish Refugees, 1938-1941.” Yad Vashem Studies, 27 (1999), pp. 123-155.

Milgram, Avraham. “The bounds of neutrality: Portugal and the repatriation of its Jewish nations.” Yad Vashem Studies, 31 (2003), pp. 201-244.

Ministry of Foreign Affairs. Spared Lives: The Actions of Three Portuguese Diplomats in World War II. (Portugal: Diplomatic Institute, 2000).

Paldiel, in Gutman, 1990, Encyclopedia of the Holocaust, s.v., “Aristides de Sousa Mendes.”


Updated November 4, 2017