Bibliography: Refuge in Spain During the Holocaust


Alexy, Trudy. The Mezuzah in the Madonna’s Foot. (New York: Simon & Schuster, 1993).

Avni, Haim. “Spanish Nationals in Greece and their Fate during the Holocaust.” Yad Vashem Studies, 8 (1970), pp. 31-68.

Avni, Haim. Spain, the Jews and Franco. (Philadelphia: Jewish Publication Society of America, 1982).

Avni, in Gutman, 1990, Encyclopedia of the Holocaust, “Spain, General Survey, Jewish Refugees in Spain,” pp. 390-394

Anvi, in Laqueur, 2001, The Holocaust Encyclopedia, s.v. “Turkey,” pp. 601-603

Bender & Weiss, 2007, The Encyclopedia of the Righteous among the Nations: Europe (Part I) and Other Countries, s.v., “Spain,” p. 513

Benz, in Laqueur, 2001, The Holocaust Encyclopedia, s.v. “Death Toll,” p. 141

García, Figueras. Spain, Franco and the Jews. (Madrid, 1988).

Leshem, P. “Rescue Efforts in the Iberian Peninsula.” Leo Baeck Institute Year Book, 14. (1969), pp. 231-256.

Payne in Gutman, 1990, The Encyclopedia of the Holocaust, s.v. “Spain”, pp. 1390-1391

Spanish Foreign Ministry. “Spanish Diplomats During the Holocaust.” [Downloaded from on 3/21/04.]

United States Holocaust Memorial Museum. Historical Atlas of the Holocaust. (New York: Macmillan, 1996).


Updated November 5, 2017