Rescue in the Holocaust by Diplomats - Hiram Bingham, IV

 United States postage stamp honoring diplomatic rescuer Hiram "Harry" Bingham, IV.  Issued June 2006.

United States postage stamp honoring diplomatic rescuer Hiram "Harry" Bingham, IV.  Issued June 2006.


Hiram "Harry" Bingham, IV, Diplomatic Rescuer


Hiram "Harry" Bingham, IV, was an American diplomat stationed at the U.S. consulate in Marseilles, France.  He worked closely with Varian Fry and the Emergency Rescue Committee (ERC), as well as other rescue and relief organizations.  He supplied numerous visas and identification papers to refugees, enabling them to successfully escape Southern France.  For detailed information on Varian Fry and the Emergency Rescue Committee, please click here.  For a detailed history of the rescue operations of the ERC and other organizations in Southern France, please click here.


Historic Background of Rescue in France



References to Harry Bingham in Primary Sources

Rescue in France: Historic Background

United States Visa Policy, 1938-1943


Bingham and US State Department Chronology

Hiram Bingham and US State Department Chronology


Bibliography and Quotes

Appendix 1: Abbreviations

Appendix 2:  Bibliography: America and the Holocaust

Appendix 3:  Quotes by and about Vice Consul Hiram Bingham, IV


Letters and Testimonies

Appendix 4:  Thank You Letter to Hiram Bingham from Fred Altmann

Appendix 5:  Letter to Mrs. Eleanor Roosevelt from Karl Frank of ERC

Appendix 6:  Letter from Mrs. Eleanor Roosevelt to Sumner Welles

Appendix 7:  Translation of Feuchtwanger Diary 1940 - Selected Entries

Appendix 8:  Letter from R. Breitscheid Dated September 10, 1940

Appendix 9:  Letter from B. Heine Dated September 24, 1940

Appendix 10: Letter from Thomas Mann dated October 27, 1940

Appendix 11:  Thank You Letter from Martha Sharp to Hiram Bingham

Appendix 12:  Testimony of M. Friedrich Heine, Visa Recipient

Appendix 13:  Testimony of Fred Buch, Visa Recipient

Appendix 14:  Testimony of Lillian Stuart Smith, Visa Recipient

Appendix 15:  Testimony of Ralph Hockley, Visa Recipient

Appendix 16:  Testimony of Rabbi Joseph Schachter, Visa Recipient

Appendix 17:  Testimony of Walter Shostal, Visa Recipient

Appendix 18:  Testimony of Elly (Oppenheim) Sherman, Visa Recipient

Appendix 19:  Testimony of the Lichtenstein Family, Visa Recipients

Appendix 20:  Letter from Bingham Visa Recipient M. Friedrich Heine

Appendix 21:  Testimony by Senator Franz Leichter, Visa Recipient

Appendix 22:  Testimony by Hans L. Schlesinger, Visa Recipient

Appendix 23:  List of Visa Applicants Found in Bingham’s Papers – Part 1

Appendix 24:  List of Visa Applicants Found in Bingham’s Papers – Part 2

Appendix 25:  List of Visas Granted, Refugees in Danger

Appendix 26:  Business Cards of Visa Applicants in Marseilles

Appendix 27:  HIAS List of Jewish Refugees with US Visas from Marseilles

Appendix 28:  Cables from Embassy in Vichy to US State Department

Appendix 29:  Fry Letter to Cordell Hull Dated November 18, 1940

Appendix 30:  Letter from Matthews re Varian Fry, November 30, 1940

Appendix 31:  Letter to Howard E. Kershner of December 13, 1940

Appendix 32:  Letter Commending Hiram Bingham, February 12, 1941

Appendix 33:  Letter from Varian Fry to US Embassy in Vichy, March 7, 1941

Appendix 34:  Fry re Uneven Implementation of Visa Policy, April 10, 1941

Appendix 35:  Letter from Varian Fry to Senator Wagner, April 19, 1941

Appendix 36:  Telegram from Fullerton to Secretary of State Hull, June 11, 1941

Appendix 37:  Cablegram from Fry to ERC in New York on June 24, 1941

Appendix 38:  Memo from Consul General Fullerton re Fry, September 1, 1941

Appendix 39:  Fry Letter Dated October 15, 1941

Appendix 40:  Fry Letter to Daniel Bénédite of November 25, 1941

Appendix 41:  Fry Letter to Bénédite of December 24, 1941

Appendix 42:  Fry Letter to Bénédite on February 2, 1942

Appendix 43:  Fry Letter to Daniel Bénédite of April 3, 1942

Appendix 44:  Fry Letter to Daniel Bénédite of May 28, 1942

Appendix 45:  Letter from Bingham to Feuchtwanger, June 9, 1942

Appendix 46:  Fry Unpublished Comments re Difficulties with American Consular Officials in France

Appendix 47:  Fry Unpublished Comments re Uncooperative Attitudes of American Diplomats in France

Appendix 48:  Fry Unpublished Comments re Obtaining Exit Visas

Appendix 49:  Fry Unpublished Comments re Vice Consul Bingham Aiding Refugees


Historic State Department Documents re Immigration

Appendix 50:  US State Department Visa Policy Chronology

Appendix 51:  Telegram, US Department of State, September 18, 1940

Appendix 52:  Memo from State Department re Recalling Fry, Sept. 27, 1940

Appendix 53:  Memorandum from State Department re Fry October 1, 1940

Appendix 54:  Cable from US Embassy in Vichy to State Dept., June 25, 1941

Appendix 55 – Circular Telegrams to Consulates from Secty. of State

Appendix 56:  Telegram to Diplomatic Offices on September 19, 1940

Appendix 57:  Letter from Long to Adolph Berle and Mr. Dunn, June 26, 1940

Appendix 58 – Margaret Jones Letter Re Long Memo

Appendix 59:  Letter from Breckinridge Long

Appendix 60 – United States Visa Procedures 1941

Appendix 61: United States State Department Memo, August 1942

Appendix 62 – US State Department Memo, January 1943

Appendix 63 – US State Department Memo, February 1943

Appendix 64 – Breckinridge Long Correspondence and Diary Entries

Appendix 65 – Treasury Department Report on the Murder of Jews


Recognizing Bingham's Humanitarian Efforts

Appendix 66:  Thesis by Anita Kassof, Curator of the Fry Exhibit

Appendix 67:  Letter from US Holocaust Memorial Museum

Appendix 68 - Letter from the American Foreign Service Association

Appendix 69:  Bingham Visa Recipients / Survivors

Appendix 70 - Acknowledgements